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Synthetic Cathinone and Cannabinoid Designer Drugs Pose a Major Risk for Public Health

Published on Aug 23, 2017in Frontiers in Psychiatry3.161
· DOI :10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00156
Aviv Weinstein26
Estimated H-index: 26
(Ariel University),
Paola Rosca1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsEdythe D. London79
Estimated H-index: 79
(UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)
Sources
Abstract
As part of an increasing worldwide use of designer drugs, recent use of compounds containing cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids is especially prevalent. Here we reviewed current literature on the prevalence, epidemiology, bio-behavioral effects and detection of these compounds. Gender differences and clinical effects will also be examined. Chronic use of synthetic cathinone compounds can have major effects on the central nervous system, and can induce acute psychosis, hypomania, paranoid ideation and delusions, similar to the effects of other better-known amphetamine-type stimulants. Synthetic cannabinoid products have effects that are somewhat similar to those of natural cannabis but more potent and long-lasting than THC. Some of these compounds are potent and dangerous, having been linked to psychosis, mania and suicidal ideation. Novel compounds are developed rapidly and new screening techniques are needed to detect them as well as a rigorous regulation and legislation reinforcement to prevent their distribution and use. Given the rapid increase in the use of synthetic cathinones and cannabinoid designer drugs, their potential for dependence and abuse and harmful medical and psychiatric effects, there is a need for research and education in the areas of prevention and treatment.
  • References (145)
  • Citations (33)
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References145
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#1Ji-Hwan Oh (SKKU: Sungkyunkwan University)H-Index: 3
#2Ji-Young Hwang (SKKU: Sungkyunkwan University)H-Index: 7
Last. Choon-Gon Jang (SKKU: Sungkyunkwan University)H-Index: 31
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Substituted cathinones are synthetic analogs of the active components of natural products and are widely abused worldwide. However, the rewarding properties of these agents have not yet been evaluated. In this study, we investigated the abuse potential of buphedrone [2-(methylamino)-1-phenylbutan-1-one, α-methylamino-butyrophenone] and its effects on the mesolimbic dopaminergic system in mice using conditioned place preference (CPP) analysis, a self-administration test, a locomotor activity test...
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#1Michelle E. John (University Hospitals of Cleveland)H-Index: 1
Last. David HahnH-Index: 1
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Abstract Background: Bath salts have recently emerged as a popular designer drug of abuse causing significant hazardous effects on mental health and physical health, resulting in public health legislation making its usage illegal in the United States. Objective: To educate mental health providers on the effects of the new designer drug bath salts, including its potential to cause psychosis and violence in patients. Method: This is a case report on a 40-year-old male with no past psychiatric hist...
14 CitationsSource
#1Jenny L. Wiley (RTP: Research Triangle Park)H-Index: 40
#2Timothy W. Lefever (RTP: Research Triangle Park)H-Index: 12
Last. Rebecca M. Craft (WSU: Washington State University)H-Index: 34
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Abstract Background Women report greater sensitivity to the subjective effects of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Similarly, female rodents tend to be more sensitive to some pharmacological effects of THC and synthetic cannabinoids. This study examined sex differences in discriminative stimulus and response rate effects of THC and synthetic cannabinoids in rats. Methods A cumulative dosing THC discrimination procedure was utilized to evaluate sex differences in the discriminative stimulus effec...
14 CitationsSource
#1Chrislean Jun Botanas (Sahmyook University)H-Index: 7
#2Seong Shoon Yoon (Safety Pharmacology Society)H-Index: 10
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#1Jae Hoon Cheong (Sahmyook University)H-Index: 28
#2Mee Jung ChoiH-Index: 2
Last. Seong Shoon YoonH-Index: 10
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Rationale Synthetic cathinones are chemical derivatives of cathinone that are pharmacologically similar to cocaine and methamphetamine. Recently, abuse of synthetic cathinones among young people has increased.
10 CitationsSource
#1Chrislean Jun Botanas (Sahmyook University)H-Index: 7
#2Seong Shoon Yoon (Safety Pharmacology Society)H-Index: 10
Last. Jae Hoon Cheong (Sahmyook University)H-Index: 28
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Abstract The recreational use of synthetic cathinones has dramatically increased in recent years, which is partly due to easy accessibility and ability of synthetic cathinones to exert rewarding effects similar to cocaine and methamphetamine. Many synthetic cathinones have already been scheduled in several countries; however, novel and diverse synthetic cathinones are emerging at an unprecedented rate, often outpacing regulatory processes. Recently, designer modifications of the basic cathinone ...
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#1Sally L. Huskinson (UMMC: University of Mississippi Medical Center)H-Index: 5
#2Jennifer E. Naylor (UMMC: University of Mississippi Medical Center)H-Index: 4
Last. Kevin B. Freeman (UMMC: University of Mississippi Medical Center)H-Index: 12
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Rationale Synthetic cathinones have become increasingly available as drugs of abuse. Distribution of these drugs is made possible by altering the chemical structures of prohibited cathinones and marketing them under misleading labels. Very little is known about the relative reinforcing effectiveness of new synthetic cathinones relative to known drugs of abuse.
19 CitationsSource
#1Lenka Hruba (University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio)H-Index: 7
#2Lance R. McMahonH-Index: 22
Synthetic cannabinoids have been prohibited due to abuse liability and toxicity. Four such synthetic cannabinoids, AM-2201, CP-47,497, JWH-122, and JWH-250, were tested for their capacity to produce CB1 receptor-mediated discriminative stimulus effects in two groups of rhesus monkeys. One group (n=4) discriminated ∆9-THC (0.1 mg/kg i.v.) and a second group (n=4) discriminated the cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant (1 mg/kg i.v.) while receiving 1 mg/kg/12 h of ∆9-THC. AM-2201, JWH-122, CP-47,497,...
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#2Seong Shoon Yoon (Safety Pharmacology Society)H-Index: 10
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Abstract The recreational use of synthetic cathinones has grown rapidly which prompted concerns from legal authorities and health care providers. However, in response to legislative regulations, synthesis of novel synthetic cathinones by introducing substituents in cathinone molecule has dramatically increased the diversity of these substances. Based on current trends, the aromatic ring is one of the popular sites in cathinone molecule being explored by designer-type modifications. In this study...
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Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are the largest group of compounds currently monitored in Europe by the EU Early Warning System on new psychoactive substances. Emerging recreational use of these products has led to multiple cases of adverse health effects and even death. In contrast to marijuana, where Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9THC) is metabolized to only one major active metabolite, it has been reported that several major phase I metabolites of SCs remain biologically active, exerting cannabinoid...
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