Habitual Dietary Patterns of Patients on Hemodialysis Indicate Nutritional Risk.
Objective This study aimed to (i) determine habitual dietary patterns of Malaysian patients on hemodialysis (HD) and (ii) examine their association with nutritional status. Methods An a posteriori approach examined 3-day dietary recalls of 382 multiethnic Malaysian patients on HD, leading to short-listing of 31 food groups. Dietary patterns were derived through principal component analysis. Sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics together with nutritional parameters were examined for associations with specific dietary patterns. Results Four dietary patterns emerged, namely, "Home Food," "Eating Out (EO)-Rice," "EO-Sugar sweetened beverages," and "EO-Noodle." Younger patients, male gender, Malay, and patients with working status were more likely to follow "EO-Rice" and "EO-Sugar sweetened beverages" patterns, while Chinese patients were more likely to consume "EO-Noodle" pattern (all P values Conclusions These results indicated that a home-based diet inclusive of healthy food choices was associated with better nutritional status in this HD population.