Activation of AMPK inhibits inflammatory response during hypoxia and reoxygenation through modulating JNK-mediated NF-κB pathway
Published on Jun 1, 2018in Metabolism-clinical and Experimental6.51
· DOI :10.1016/j.metabol.2018.03.004
Abstract Background AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) is a stress-activated kinase that protects against cardiomyocyte injury during ischemia and reperfusion. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a mitogen activated protein kinase, is activated by ischemia and reperfusion. NF-κB is an important transcription factor involved in ischemia and reperfusion injury. Methods and Results The intrinsic activation of AMPK attenuates the inflammation which occurred during ischemia/reperfusion through the modulation of the JNK mediated NF-κB signaling pathway. Rat cardiac myoblast H9c2 cells were subjected to hypoxia and/or reoxygenation to investigate the signal transduction that occurred during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Mitochondrial function was measured by the Seahorse XF24 V7 PS system. Hypoxia treatment triggered AMPK activation in H9c2 cells in a time dependent manner. The inhibition of hypoxic AMPK activation through a pharmacological approach (Compound C) or siRNA knockdown of AMPK α catalytic subunits caused dramatic augmentation in JNK activation, inflammatory NF-κB phosphorylation, and apoptosis during hypoxia and reoxygenation. Inhibition of AMPK activation significantly impaired mitochondrial function and increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during hypoxia and reoxygenation. In contrast, pharmacological activation of AMPK by metformin significantly inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and ROS generation. Moreover, AMPK activation significantly attenuated the JNK-NF-κB signaling cascade and inhibited mRNA and protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, during hyopoxia/reoxygenation in H9c2 cells. Intriguingly, both pharmacologic inhibition of JNK by JNK-IN-8 and siRNA knockdown of JNK signaling pathway attenuated NF-κB phosphorylation and apoptosis but did not affect AMPK activation in response to hypoxia and reoxygenation. Conclusions AMPK activation modulates JNK-NF-κB signaling cascade during hypoxia and reoxygenation stress conditions. Cardiac AMPK activation plays a critical role in maintaining mitochondrial function and inhibiting the inflammatory response caused by ischemic insults.