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Does organizational formalization facilitate voice and helping organizational citizenship behaviors? It depends on (national) uncertainty norms

Published on Feb 1, 2019in Journal of International Business Studies 7.72
· DOI :10.1057/s41267-017-0132-6
Rebecca A. Fischer38
Estimated H-index: 38
(Victoria University of Wellington),
Maria Cristina Ferreira17
Estimated H-index: 17
+ 11 AuthorsAmina Abubakar1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Pwani University College)
Prosocial work behaviors in a globalized environment do not operate in a cultural vacuum. We assess to what extent voice and helping organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) vary across cultures, depending on employees’ perceived level of organizational formalization and national uncertainty. We predict that in contexts of uncertainty, cognitive resources are engaged in coping with this uncertainty. Organizational formalization can provide structure that frees up cognitive resources to engage in OCB. In contrast, in contexts of low uncertainty, organizational formalization is not necessary for providing structure and may increase constraints on discretionary behavior. A three-level hierarchical linear modeling analysis of data from 7,537 employees in 267 organizations across 17 countries provides broad support for our hypothesis: perceived organizational formalization is weakly related to OCB, but where uncertainty is high; formalization facilitates voice significantly, helping OCB to a lesser extent. Our findings contribute to clarifying the dynamics between perceptions of norms at organizational and national levels for understanding when employees may engage in helping and voice behaviors. The key implication is that managers can foster OCB through organizational formalization interventions in uncertain environments that are cognitively demanding.
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Published on Jan 1, 2018in Journal of International Business Studies 7.72
Torben Schubert14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Lund University),
Elisabeth Baier7
Estimated H-index: 7
Christian Rammer21
Estimated H-index: 21
We develop a behavioural framework of bounded rational decision-making under uncertainty to analyse the role of technological dynamism in the firm’s environment for its decision to internationalise innovation. Applying prospect theory, we argue that technological uncertainty in the firm’s environment affects its risk preferences differently depending on its technological capabilities. A key prediction is that firms with low capabilities will internationalise innovation when faced by technologica...
Published on Sep 21, 2017in Journal of International Business Studies 7.72
Daniel Richard Clark1
Estimated H-index: 1
(IE University),
Dan Li14
Estimated H-index: 14
(IU: Indiana University),
Dean A. Shepherd72
Estimated H-index: 72
(ND: University of Notre Dame)
Focusing on the initial stage of foreign market selection (i.e., narrowing a set of potential countries from which to make a final choice), we theorize that manager’s country familiarity influences both the decision-making process and outcome. We hypothesize that with increasing country familiarity, (a) manager investment of cognitive effort (process) first increases and then decreases, and (b) the likelihood of a country being included for further consideration (outcome) also increases and then...
Published on Sep 8, 2017in Journal of International Business Studies 7.72
Susan L. Young4
Estimated H-index: 4
(KSU: Kennesaw State University),
Chris Welter5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Xavier University),
Michael Conger4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Miami University)
How entrepreneurial opportunities are formed and exploited depends upon the institutional environment in which they are embedded. The varying amounts of risk and uncertainty across and within heterogeneous institutional environments have important implications for the types of opportunity developed. While the international business and entrepreneurship literatures consider the effect of environmental risk and uncertainty on firms, risk and uncertainty are often treated as interchangeable or syno...
Published on Aug 1, 2017in Journal of International Business Studies 7.72
Dale Griffin42
Estimated H-index: 42
(UBC: University of British Columbia),
Omrane Guedhami30
Estimated H-index: 30
(USC: University of South Carolina)
+ 2 AuthorsLiang Shao6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Hong Kong Baptist University)
It is well known that firm-level corporate governance practices vary mainly between rather than within countries, but country-level factors such as legal and financial institutions explain less than 50% of this cross-country variation. In this article we show that two dimensions of national culture – individualism and uncertainty avoidance – capture about 90% of the country fixed effects and outperform the country-level explanatory variables used in prior literature. We argue that culture works ...
Published on Jan 1, 2017in Journal of International Business Studies 7.72
Sjoerd Beugelsdijk28
Estimated H-index: 28
(UG: University of Groningen),
Tatiana Kostova25
Estimated H-index: 25
(USC: University of South Carolina),
Kendall Roth32
Estimated H-index: 32
(USC: University of South Carolina)
Abstract Kirkman, Lowe, & Gibson’s (2006) JIBS article summarized and critiqued international business research inspired by the most cited book in the field Hofstede’s 1980 Culture’s Consequences: International differences in work-related values (Hofstede [1980]2001). They identified a number of issues in this research and offered several recommendations for improving it in the future, thus laying a strong foundation for Hofstede-related work since 2006. In this commentary, we assess Kirkman et ...
Published on Jan 1, 2017in Journal of International Business Studies 7.72
Bradley L. Kirkman37
Estimated H-index: 37
(NCSU: North Carolina State University),
Kevin B. Lowe20
Estimated H-index: 20
(University of Auckland),
Cristina B. Gibson36
Estimated H-index: 36
(UWA: University of Western Australia)
Abstract Our 2006 Journal of International Business Studies article, “A Quarter Century of Culture’s Consequences: A Review of the Empirical Research Incorporating Hofstede’s Cultural Values Framework,” provided a comprehensive review of 180 empirical journal articles and edited volume chapters published between 1980 and June 2002 that incorporated Hofstede’s cross-cultural values framework. We examined empirical research that positioned culture as either a main or moderating effect. The review ...
Published on Jan 1, 2017in Journal of International Business Studies 7.72
Ashish Mahajan5
Estimated H-index: 5
(U of W: University of Windsor),
Soo Min Toh10
Estimated H-index: 10
(U of T: University of Toronto)
Abstract Drawing on Mischel’s (1968) situationist perspective, we theorized that in a weak situation, one created by a group culture of low power distance (PD) or low uncertainty avoidance (UA), political skills increase the display of interpersonal citizenship behaviors. In a strong situation, one created by a high group PD or high group UA, the application of political skills is constrained. In a sample comprising of supervisor–employee groups from Canada and India, we highlight group culture ...
Published on Dec 1, 2015in Journal of International Business Studies 7.72
Kwok Leung61
Estimated H-index: 61
(CUHK: The Chinese University of Hong Kong),
Michael W. Morris49
Estimated H-index: 49
(Columbia University)
International business (IB) research has predominantly relied on value constructs to account for the influence of societal culture, notably Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. While parsimonious, the value approach’s assumptions about the consensus of values within nations, and the generality and stability of cultural patterns of behavior are increasingly challenged. We review two promising alternatives – the constructivist approach centering on schemas and the intersubjectivist approach centering o...
Michael W. Morris49
Estimated H-index: 49
(Columbia University),
Ying-yi Hong17
Estimated H-index: 17
(BNU: Beijing Normal University)
+ 1 AuthorsZhi Liu4
Estimated H-index: 4
(PKU: Peking University)
This paper integrates social norm constructs from different disciplines into an integrated model. Norms exist in the objective social environment in the form of behavioral regularities, patterns of sanctioning, and institutionalized practices and rules. They exist subjectively in perceived descriptive norms, perceived injunctive norms, and personal norms. We also distil and delineate three classic theories of why people adhere to norms: internalization, social identity, and rational choice. Addi...
Published on Apr 1, 2015in Journal of International Business Studies 7.72
Yuan Jiang8
Estimated H-index: 8
(SJTU: Shanghai Jiao Tong University),
Saba Colakoglu10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Koç University)
+ 2 AuthorsDouglas L. Kruse35
Estimated H-index: 35
(RU: Rutgers University)
Work practices that involve employees are generally assumed to be less effective in more hierarchical societies where employees’ values are not aligned with such practices. In this study, we challenge this assumption by developing a theory that differentiates between the symbolic and instrumental aspects of involvement work systems and proposing that their symbolic impact will be more pronounced in egalitarian societies, whereas their instrumental impact will be more pronounced in hierarchical s...
Cited By3
Published on May 17, 2019in Journal of International Business Studies 7.72
Logan L. Watts (The Graduate Center, CUNY), Logan L. Watts (The Graduate Center, CUNY)+ 0 AuthorsDeanne N. Den Hartog44
Estimated H-index: 44
(UvA: University of Amsterdam)
Transformational leadership is commonly assumed to facilitate employee innovation in all cultures. Drawing upon field studies from 17 countries, this meta-analysis revealed that supervisor transformational leadership is positively related to individual- and team-level innovation regardless of national boundaries. However, the relationship trended somewhat more strongly in countries with higher levels of uncertainty avoidance. These findings suggest that employee innovation in most countries can ...
Published on Apr 21, 2019in Applied Psychology 3.27
Rebecca A. Fischer38
Estimated H-index: 38
(Victoria University of Wellington)
Published on Sep 1, 2018in Journal of International Business Studies 7.72
Matthias Weiss1
Estimated H-index: 1
(RUB: Ruhr University Bochum),
Laura Joan Salm + 1 AuthorsMartin Hoegl34
Estimated H-index: 34
Abstract Team personal-life inclusion (Team PLI) refers to socialization with fellow team members in the private domain. While PLI is an expected behavior in the socially oriented Chinese work context, it is generally seen as unfavorable in task-oriented contexts like Germany. We investigate the relative impact of Team PLI on the performance of Chinese and German teams. Based on data from 130 Chinese and 124 German teams, we show that Team PLI has opposing consequences in China and Germany. Whil...