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Vulnerability to Depression in Youth: Advances From Affective Neuroscience

Published on Jan 1, 2017in Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
· DOI :10.1016/j.bpsc.2016.09.006
Autumn Kujawa21
Estimated H-index: 21
(PSU: Pennsylvania State University),
Katie L. Burkhouse11
Estimated H-index: 11
(UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)
Sources
Abstract
Abstract Vulnerability models of depression posit that individual differences in trait-like vulnerabilities emerge early in life and increase risk for the later development of depression. In this review, we summarize advances from affective neuroscience using neural measures to assess vulnerabilities in youth at high risk for depression due to parental history of depression or temperament style, as well as prospective designs evaluating the predictive validity of these vulnerabilities for symptoms and diagnoses of depression across development. Evidence from multiple levels of analysis indicates that healthy youth at high risk for depression exhibit abnormalities in components of the Research Domain Criteria positive valence systems, including blunted activation in the striatum during reward anticipation and feedback, and that some of these measures can be used to predict later symptoms. In addition, alterations in components of the Research Domain Criteria negative valence systems, including neural processing of sadness, loss, and threat, have been observed in risk for depression, though effects appear to be more task and method dependent. Within the social processes domain, preliminary evidence indicates that neural processing of social feedback, including heightened reactivity to exclusion and blunted response to social reward, may be related to depression vulnerability. These studies indicate that affective neuroscience can inform understanding of developmental pathways to depression and identify altered emotional processing among youth at high risk. We provide an integrated summary of replicated findings from this literature, along with recommendations for future directions and implications for early intervention.
  • References (102)
  • Citations (12)
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References102
Newest
#1Alexandria Meyer (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 14
#2Jennifer N. Bress (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 10
Last. Brandon E. Gibb (Binghamton University)H-Index: 37
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Chronic parental depression is associated with an increased likelihood of depression in offspring. One mechanism by which parental depression may increase risk is through physiological or cognitive tendencies in offspring. Error processing has been studied using the error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential that occurs around the time someone commits an error, and has previously been shown to be heritable and blunted in depressed individuals. The current study examined the ERN a...
7 CitationsSource
#1Ellen M. Kessel (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 10
#2Autumn Kujawa (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 21
Last. Daniel N. Klein (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 73
view all 7 authors...
Abstract Background The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) constructs of Positive Valence Systems (PVS) and Negative Valence Systems (NVS) are presumed to manifest behaviorally through early-emerging temperamental negative affectivity (NA) and positive affectivity (PA). The late positive potential (LPP) is a physiological measure of attention towards both negative and positive emotional stimuli; however, its associations with behavioral aspects of PVS and NVS have yet to be examined. Methods In a c...
6 CitationsSource
#1Brandon L. Goldstein (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 6
#2Stewart A. Shankman (UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)H-Index: 24
Last. Daniel N. Klein (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 73
view all 6 authors...
Background A number of studies have reported that depression is associated with lower relative left frontal activity in the alpha band (i.e. frontal asymmetry, or FA), as measured by electroencephalogram. FA has also been hypothesized to be a vulnerability marker for depression. If this is the case, FA should be evident in offspring of depressed mothers, a group at elevated risk for depression. However, the results of previous offspring studies have been inconsistent and none of these studies ha...
14 CitationsSource
#1Brittany C. SpeedH-Index: 5
#2Brady D. NelsonH-Index: 19
Last. Greg HajcakH-Index: 66
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#1Annmarie MacNamara (UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)H-Index: 17
#2Roman Kotov (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 38
Last. Greg Hajcak (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 66
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The delineation of specific versus overlapping mechanisms in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) could shed light on the integrity of these diagnostic categories. For example, negative emotion generation is one mechanism that may be especially relevant to both disorders. Emotional processing abnormalities were examined among 97 outpatients with GAD or MDD and 25 healthy adults, using the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential that is larger f...
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#1Kristen A. Lindquist (UNC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)H-Index: 21
#2Ajay B. Satpute (Pomona College)H-Index: 19
Last. Lisa Feldman Barrett L F (NU: Northeastern University)H-Index: 138
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The ability to experience pleasant or unpleasant feelings or to represent objects as "positive" or "negative" is known as representing hedonic "valence." Although scientists overwhelmingly agree that valence is a basic psychological phenomenon, debate continues about how to best conceptualize it scientifically. We used a meta-analysis of 397 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography studies (containing 914 experimental contrasts and 6827 participants) to test ...
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#1Katie L. Burkhouse (UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)H-Index: 11
#2Autumn Kujawa (UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)H-Index: 21
Last. Heide Klumpp (UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)H-Index: 20
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BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a well-established treatment for anxiety and depression; however, response to CBT is heterogeneous across patients and many remain symptomatic after therapy, raising the need to identify prospective predictors for treatment planning. Altered neural processing of reward has been implicated in both depression and anxiety, and improving hedonic capacity is a goal of CBT. However, little is known about how neural response to reward relates to CBT out...
16 CitationsSource
#1Katherine R. Luking (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 11
#2David Pagliaccio (WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)H-Index: 16
Last. Deanna M (WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)H-Index: 77
view all 4 authors...
Objective Maternal major depressive disorder (MDD) increases risk for MDD and predicts reduced reward responding in adolescent offspring. However, it is unclear whether alterations in neural response to reward can be detected in school-aged children at high risk before the typical increase in reward response observed in adolescence. Method To assess relationships between neural response to gain/loss feedback, MDD risk, and child depressive symptoms, 47 psychiatrically healthy 7- to 10-year-old c...
24 CitationsSource
#1Anna Weinberg (McGill University)H-Index: 27
#2Alexandria Meyer (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 14
Last. Greg Hajcak (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 66
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The error-related negativity (ERN) currently appears as a physiological measure in relation to three Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) constructs: Cognitive Control, Sustained Threat, and Reward Learning. We propose a conceptual model in which variance in the ERN reflects individual differences in the degree to which errors are evaluated as threatening. We also discuss evidence for the placement of the ERN in the “Sustained Threat” construct, as well as evidence that the ERN may more specifically ...
68 CitationsSource
#1Rebecca B. Price (University of Pittsburgh)H-Index: 18
#2Dana Rosen (University of Pittsburgh)H-Index: 3
Last. Jennifer S. Silk (University of Pittsburgh)H-Index: 39
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Anxious youth are at heightened risk for subsequent development of depression; however, little is known regarding which anxious youth are at the highest prospective risk. Biased attentional patterns (e.g., vigilance and avoidance of negative cues) are implicated as key mechanisms in both anxiety and depression. Aberrant attentional patterns may disrupt opportunities to effectively engage with, and learn from, threatening aspects of the environment during development and/or treatment, compounding...
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Cited By12
Newest
#1Autumn Kujawa (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)H-Index: 21
#2Daniel N. Klein (SBU: Stony Brook University)H-Index: 73
Last. Anna Weinberg (McGill University)H-Index: 27
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Abstract Reduced activation of positive valence systems (PVS), including blunted neural and physiological responses to pleasant stimuli and rewards, has been shown to prospectively predict the development of psychopathology. Yet, little is known about how reduced PVS activation emerges across development or what implications it has for prevention. We review genetic, temperament, parenting, and naturalistic and laboratory stress research on neural measures of PVS and outline developmentally-infor...
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#1Samuel B. Seidman (Case Western Reserve University)
#2Sarah Danzo (Case Western Reserve University)H-Index: 2
Last. Arin M. Connell (Case Western Reserve University)H-Index: 19
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Abstract Background Maternal depression history represents a significant risk factor for developing psychopathology in children, altered emotional responding may represent a central risk pathway. However, additional research is needed on factors that affect the strength or direction of response alterations in relation to depression-risk in youth. In particular, facial orientation and gaze direction may alter personal relevance, with emotions directed towards an individual heightening motivationa...
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#1Samantha Pegg (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)
#2Lindsay Dickey (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)
Last. Autumn Kujawa (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)H-Index: 21
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BACKGROUND: Suicidality in youth is a major public health problem and objective methods for identifying those at greatest risk are critically needed. Suicidality has been associated with alterations in reward-related decision-making, but the extent to which measures of reward responsiveness (RR) can differentiate youth with and without suicidality in clinical samples remains unclear. METHODS: We examined reliable and accessible neurophysiological (i.e., reward positivity [RewP] event-related pot...
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#1Samantha Pegg (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)
#2Autumn Kujawa (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)H-Index: 21
Abstract Individual differences in reward responsiveness can be reliably measured at the neurophysiological level using the reward positivity (RewP) event-related potential (ERP). Alterations in reward responsiveness impact physical and psychological health. In particular, prior research indicates that a reduced RewP prospectively predicts depressive symptoms. However, it remains unclear whether RewP can be modified through intervention or prevention. The present study examined the effects of a ...
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#1Emilia F Cárdenas (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)
#2Autumn Kujawa (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)H-Index: 21
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Pregnancy and the transition to parenthood is an important period marked by dramatic neurobiological and psychosocial changes that may have implications for the health of women and offspring. Although human and non-human animal research suggests the brain undergoes alterations during the peripartum period, these changes are poorly understood. Here, we review existing research, particularly human neuroimaging and psychophysiological research, to examine changes in brain structure and function dur...
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#1Yara Jo Toenders (University of Melbourne)
#2Laura S. van Velzen (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 8
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Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD) often emerges during adolescence with detrimental effects on development as well as lifetime consequences. Identifying neurobiological markers that are associated with the onset or course of this disorder in childhood and adolescence is important for early recognition and intervention and, potentially, for the prevention of illness onset. In this systematic review, 68 longitudinal neuroimaging studies, from 34 unique samples, that examined the association...
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Exposure to social stress is a well-established risk factor for the development and recurrence of depression. Reduced neural responsiveness to monetary reward has been associated with greater symptoms following stress exposure. It remains unclear whether reduced reward responsiveness serves as a mediator or moderator of the effects of stress on internalizing symptoms or whether similar patterns emerge with responses to social reward. We addressed this issue by measuring lifetime stress exposure ...
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