Is the Promissory Note of Personality as Vulnerability to Depression in Default? Reply to Zuroff, Mongrain, and Santor (2004).

Published on Jan 1, 2004in Psychological Bulletin 13.25
· DOI :10.1037/0033-2909.130.3.512
James C. Coyne74
Estimated H-index: 74
(University of Pennsylvania),
Richard Thompson29
Estimated H-index: 29
(Juvenile Protective Association),
Valerie E. Whiffen27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Ottawa)
  • References (59)
  • Citations (16)
Published on Apr 1, 1998in Journal of Personality 3.48
Myriam Mongrain20
Estimated H-index: 20
(York University)
Cognitive and interpersonal models of depression were integrated by examining the links between parental representations and the interpersonal behaviors of individuals at risk for depression. Study 1 assessed the quantity and type of social support associated with Dependency and Self-Criticism. Study 2 examined the parental representations related to these personality styles, in an effort to document cognitive variables that might contribute to interpersonal behaviors. Self-critics were found to...
110 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1997in Clinical Psychology Review 9.58
Alan E. Kazdin102
Estimated H-index: 102
(Yale University),
Helena C. Kraemer116
Estimated H-index: 116
(Stanford University)
+ 2 AuthorsDavid R. Offord65
Estimated H-index: 65
(McMaster University)
Abstract Risk-factor research refers to the study of antecedent conditions and subsequent outcomes and the ways in which these are interrelated. The research encompasses a broad range of questions and research strategies. The paper discusses the characteristics and contributions of risk-factor research in the context of developmental psychopathology. The ways in which causal paths are conceptualized, the capacity to integrate multiple influences, and applications that can be derived from the fin...
235 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1997in Contemporary Sociology 0.34
Ian H. Gotlib95
Estimated H-index: 95
Blair Wheaton1
Estimated H-index: 1
List of contributors 1. Trajectories and turning points over the life course: concepts and themes Blair Wheaton and Ian H. Gotlib Part I. Trajectories: Long-Term Effects of Adverse Experience: 2. Childhood adversity and adult psychopathology Ronald C. Kessler, Jacquelyn Gillis-Light, William J. Magee, Kenneth S. Kendler and Lindon J. Eaves 3. The impact of twenty childhood and adult traumatic stressors on the risk of psychiatric disorder Blair Wheaton, Patricia Roszell and Kimberlee Hall 4. Inte...
112 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2002in Comprehensive Psychiatry 2.13
Stewart A. Shankman23
Estimated H-index: 23
(Stony Brook University),
Daniel N. Klein71
Estimated H-index: 71
(Stony Brook University)
Abstract It has long been debated whether depression is best classified with a categorical or dimensional diagnostic system. There has been surprisingly little discussion, however, of what the contents of a dimensional classification should include, with most studies employing a single dimension based on symptom severity. The present study explored whether a dimension based on prior course of depression increases the validity of a dimensional model based on symptom severity alone and whether the...
17 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 1998in Personality and Individual Differences 1.97
Richard Thompson3
Estimated H-index: 3
(McGill University),
David C. Zuroff51
Estimated H-index: 51
(McGill University)
Abstract Although there has been some investigation of how dependent and self-critical people recall their parents, there has been little investigation of the influence of dependency and self-criticism on parental attitudes and behavior. The present study examined relations between personality and parenting styles in 49 mothers of adolescent girls. Mothers completed measures of dependency and self-criticism and of baseline affect, then were given experimentally manipulated results of the daughte...
32 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 2000in Child Development 3.78
Nancy S. Weinfield10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of Virginia),
L. Alan Sroufe67
Estimated H-index: 67
(University of Minnesota),
Byron Egeland58
Estimated H-index: 58
(University of Minnesota)
This study explores the stability of attachment security and representations from infancy to early adulthood in a sample chosen originally for poverty and high risk for poor developmental outcomes. Participants for this study were 57 young adults who are part of an ongoing prospective study of development and adaptation in a high-risk sample. Attachment was assessed during infancy by using the Ainsworth Strange Situation (Ainsworth & Wittig) and at age 19 by using the Berkeley Adult Attachment I...
416 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 1995in Personality and Individual Differences 1.97
Myriam Mongrain20
Estimated H-index: 20
(York University),
David C. Zuroff51
Estimated H-index: 51
(McGill University)
Abstract Dependent, self-critical, mixed and control subjects ( N = 152) completed the Personal Striving Assessment Packet (Emmons, Goal Concepts in Personality and Social Psychology , 1989) and self-monitored their moods for one week. Dependency and Self-Criticism were related to higher levels of negative affect. Self-Criticism was related to lower levels of positive affect. Personal strivings were categorized as belonging to one of seven motive categories. Dependency was related to a greater n...
73 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2000in Personality and Individual Differences 1.97
Beatriz Priel24
Estimated H-index: 24
(Ben-Gurion University of the Negev),
Golan Shahar35
Estimated H-index: 35
(Ben-Gurion University of the Negev)
Abstract Moderating and mediating models of dependency and self-criticism as vulnerabilities to emotional distress are compared. According to the moderating model, stressful events and social support moderate the vulnerability of self-critical and dependent individuals. In contrast, mediating models relate to stress and support as mediators assuming that individuals generate stress and lack of support over time. One hundred and eighty-two young adults were assessed longitudinally, and hierarchic...
108 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 1995in Cognitive Therapy and Research 2.43
Stephanie S. Rude22
Estimated H-index: 22
(University of Texas at Austin),
Barbara L. Burnham2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Texas at Austin)
Separate and combined factor analyses of the dependency scales of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ) and the Sociotropy/Autonomy Scale (SAS) each yielded a factor characterized by valuing of relationships and sensitivity to the effects of one's actions on others (Connectedness), and a factor characterized by anxious concerns regarding possible rejection (Neediness). Connectedness was associated with gender but not with depression. Neediness was associated with depression but not with...
140 Citations Source Cite
Cited By16
Published on Dec 1, 2005in Cognitive Therapy and Research 2.43
Myriam Mongrain20
Estimated H-index: 20
(York University),
Susan Blackburn1
Estimated H-index: 1
(York University)
The main purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of cognitive risk variables for previous episodes of major depression and for the recurrence of the disorder in a sample of university graduate students (n = 97). Participants were diagnosed with at least one prior episode of major depression and were assessed again 16 months later (n = 77). Consistent with previous findings (Alloy et al., 2000. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 403–418), cognitive measures including dysfunction...
38 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2011in Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 1.30
Brendt P. Parrish6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Delaware),
Lawrence H. Cohen34
Estimated H-index: 34
(University of Delaware),
Jean-Philippe Laurenceau30
Estimated H-index: 30
(University of Delaware)
The current study was based on O'Neill, Cohen, Tolpin, and Gunthert (2004) and was designed to explore the direction of the relationship between affective reactivity to daily stress and depressive symptoms. College students (N = 93) were assessed at two time periods (T1 and T2) with questionnaires measuring their current depressive symptoms and with online daily diaries measuring their interpersonal and non-interpersonal stressors and their negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA). The resu...
30 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2013in Spanish Journal of Psychology 0.63
Rui C. Campos9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Évora),
Avi Besser35
Estimated H-index: 35
(Sapir Academic College),
Sidney J. Blatt57
Estimated H-index: 57
(Yale University)
The Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ, Blatt, D�Afflitti, & Quinlan, 1976, 1979), a self-report measure used in personality research, assesses the constructs of Dependency and Self-Criticism as vulnerability factors in depression (Blatt, 1974, 1990, 2004) and psychopathology more generally (Blatt, 2008; Blatt & Shichman, 1983). This study establishes a Portuguese version of the DEQ with six samples: a bilingual sample to test the measurement equivalence of the Portuguese DEQ, and two col...
2 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 4, 2006in Cognitive Therapy and Research 2.43
Alex Cogswell8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Temple University),
Lauren B. Alloy63
Estimated H-index: 63
(Temple University),
Jelena Spasojevic4
Estimated H-index: 4
(George Mason University)
Dependency is linked to depression in clinical theory and research, although inadequate evidence exists establishing dependency as a stable personality risk factor for depression. The Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ; Blatt, D’Afflitti, & Quinlan, 1976, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 383–389) has shown two subfactors within dependency, “neediness” or more immature dependency, and “connectedness” or more mature dependency (Rude & Burnham, 1995, Cognitive Therapy and Research, 19, 32...
10 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 25, 2007in Cognitive Therapy and Research 2.43
Sandra Masih1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Queensland),
Susan H. Spence48
Estimated H-index: 48
(Macquarie University),
Tian P. S. Oei49
Estimated H-index: 49
(University of Queensland)
Measures of stressful life events, sociotropic and autonomous personality, and depressive symptoms were completed by 76 women in the last trimester of pregnancy and 8-weeks postpartum. During pregnancy, women with strong sociotropic or autonomous personality style, or high levels of negative life events (or perceived loss resulting from events) in sociotropic or autonomous domains, tended to report higher levels of depressive symptoms. Cross-sectionally, there was some support for the cognitive ...
6 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2006in Cognitive Therapy and Research 2.43
Staffan Sohlberg15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Uppsala University),
Joakim Axelsson1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Uppsala University)
+ 2 AuthorsYlva Strömbom2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Uppsala University)
Important, but not unequivocal, support has been found for Sociotropy and Autonomy as vulnerability factors for depression. Using a novel approach we gave subliminal sociotropy-related and autonomy-related visuoverbal stimulation to nondepressed students (Study 1, N=36), and patients treated for clinical depression (Study 2, N=34) in completely balanced within-groups designs. Autonomy, as measured with the Personal Style Inventory, was unrelated to response. Sociotropy predicted negative outcome...
3 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 2008in Cognitive Therapy and Research 2.43
Kimberly B. Dasch7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of Delaware),
Lawrence H. Cohen34
Estimated H-index: 34
(University of Delaware)
+ 1 AuthorsKathleen C. Gunthert16
Estimated H-index: 16
(American University)
We conducted a 10-day diary study that assessed daily stressors and end-of-day affect and self-esteem. We predicted that sociotropy would be associated with stronger sadness and self-esteem reactivity to daily interpersonal, but not achievement events, and that autonomy would be associated with the same pattern for daily achievement, but not interpersonal events. For the sample as whole, both daily interpersonal and achievement stressors were related to increased sadness and decreased self-estee...
20 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2004in Psychological Bulletin 13.25
David C. Zuroff51
Estimated H-index: 51
(McGill University),
Myriam Mongrain20
Estimated H-index: 20
(York University),
Darcy A. Santor28
Estimated H-index: 28
(Dalhousie University)
The authors do not see any benefit to J. C. Coyne, R. Thompson, and V. Whiffen’s (2004) proposal todraw sharp boundaries between psychodynamic vulnerability theories, research on the onset of syndro-mal depression, and research with vulnerable, nondepressed populations. These domains have been andremain mutually relevant. Coyne et al. did not bring forward new evidence concerning the 6 issuesaddressed by D. C. Zuroff, M. Mongrain, and D. A. Santor (2004); consequently, the authors stand bytheir ...
12 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2005in Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 3.60
Kate Keenan46
Estimated H-index: 46
(University of Chicago),
Alison E. Hipwell35
Estimated H-index: 35
(University of Pittsburgh)
Between the ages of 10 and 15, increases in depression among girls result in a rate that is twice as high as the rate of depression in boys. This sex difference remains throughout early and middle adulthood. Prior to early adolescence, there is essentially no sex difference in the rate of depression. The aim of the present review is to examine whether the preadolescent period is a time during which precursors to depression in girls can be identified. First, existing areas of research on explaini...
85 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2006in Journal of Clinical Psychology 2.33
Myriam Mongrain20
Estimated H-index: 20
(York University),
Faith Leather1
Estimated H-index: 1
(York University)
This research examined the associations of unipolar depression with immature dependence and self-criticism (S.J. Blatt et al., 1995) in a sample of graduate students with a diagnosed history of depression. A battery of tests was completed by 158 students, and a subset (n =102) was reached approximately 20 months later for the assessment of new depressive onsets. Self-criticism and neuroticism were uniquely associated with a past history of depression, and self-criticism and immature dependence i...
42 Citations Source Cite