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Surface Modification of Aluminum Alloys by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

Published on Jan 1, 2014
Vahid Dehnavi5
Estimated H-index: 5
Abstract
Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) is a surface treatment for the production of ceramic oxide coatings with great properties, such as high wear and corrosion resistance, on metal substrates, particularly aluminum and magnesium alloys. Formation of PEO coatings involves complex processes and mechanisms that are difficult to study. Currently, the PEO process is in a transition phase from research to commercial application, with a primary focus on the corrosion and wear protection of light alloys, and has recently generated interest as a promising surface treatment for biomedical applications. To justify the industrial application of PEO, a more systematic and in-depth study of the influence of various parameters on the process is required. The control of the PEO process to yield the desired morphology and microstructure for specific applications is a key requirement if the process is to be industrially applied. The aim of the research in this thesis is to study the influence of electrical parameters, so they can be optimized to produce coatings with enhanced properties mainly for tribological applications. Alumina coatings were deposited on 6061 aluminum alloy substrates in an alkaline silicate electrolyte using a unipolar pulsed DC current mode. The influence of processing conditions, mainly electrical parameters (applied frequency, duty cycle, and current density), on the formation, growth behaviour and properties of PEO coatings were investigated. Different characterization methods including scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, microhardness tests, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and linear polarization resistance measurements were used to study the microstructure, morphology and properties of coatings. The correlation between the stage of the PEO process and the properties of the coating has been shown. The voltage-time response was found to be important since it provided readily measurable and useful information about these stages. It was found that using different electrical conditions the microstructure, morphology, growth rate, phase distribution and composition of coatings could be changed. To some degree corrosion performance could be tailored by adjusting processing parameters.
  • References (55)
  • Citations (3)
References55
Newest
Published on Sep 1, 2014in Chemical Engineering & Technology 2.42
Jamshid Behin12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Razi University),
Syed Salman Bukhari7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UWO: University of Western Ontario)
+ 2 AuthorsSohrab Rohani35
Estimated H-index: 35
(UWO: University of Western Ontario)
The reuse of industrial wastes from a coal-fired power plant and a plasma electrolytic oxidation process was attempted to realize a zero discharge. The batch composition was adjusted by adding sodium hydroxide and sodium aluminate. A single-mode microwave oven equipped with reflux condenser was used for crystallization under atmospheric pressure. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, BET, thermogravimetric analysis, and cation-exchange cap...
Published on Jan 1, 2014in Vacuum 2.52
Shen Dejiu3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Technology College),
Cai Jingrui2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Technology College)
+ 6 AuthorsYang Yaqian1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Technology College)
Abstract Non-uniform microstructure and low growth rate of ceramic coatings in the mid-to late period of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) are the problems that limit the development of micro-arc oxidation technology. In this paper, the MAO process on 6061 aluminum alloy was carried out under ultrasonic condition, and the effects of ultrasonic vibration on microstructure and growth characteristics of MAO coatings were investigated. The results showed that the ultrasonic action obviously promoted the for...
Published on Dec 1, 2013in Surface & Coatings Technology 3.19
R.O. Hussein7
Estimated H-index: 7
(U of W: University of Windsor),
Derek O. Northwood37
Estimated H-index: 37
(U of W: University of Windsor),
X. Nie8
Estimated H-index: 8
(U of W: University of Windsor)
Abstract Magnesium alloys are considered one of the more promising materials for future use in many engineering applications. However, due to their high chemical and electrochemical reactivity, magnesium alloys have poor corrosion resistance in aqueous environments. Improving their corrosion resistance by coating can greatly extend their application. One promising coating method is plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). The nature of the coating formed, and the ultimate corrosion performance depen...
Published on Dec 1, 2013in Applied Surface Science 5.16
Dejiu Shen4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Technology College),
Guolong Li3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Technology College)
+ 5 AuthorsFangfei Liu2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Technology College)
Abstract In this paper, we investigate the microstructure and corrosion behavior of the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coating on 6061 aluminum alloy that pre-treated by high-temperature oxidation (HTO). Microstructure, chemical and corrosion behaviors of the fabricated MAO ceramic coatings were studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electrochemical corrosion tests. The results reveal that the pre-fabricated HTO film remarkably affects the format...
Published on Nov 1, 2013in Acta Biomaterialia 6.64
Markus Göttlicher3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Giessen),
Marcus Rohnke17
Estimated H-index: 17
(University of Giessen)
+ 5 AuthorsJürgen Janek43
Estimated H-index: 43
(University of Giessen)
Abstract Low temperature metal oxidation induced by plasma in the absence of liquid electrolytes can be useful for the surface preparation of orthopedic devices since residues from these may be harmful and need to be removed before implantation. In this study the oxidation of Ti–40Nb for biomedical application was achieved by employing an inductively coupled radio frequency oxygen plasma. The correlation between the growth mode of the surface oxide and the electric conductivity ratio of the plas...
Published on Oct 1, 2013in Surface & Coatings Technology 3.19
Ming-an Chen6
Estimated H-index: 6
(CSU: Central South University),
Si-ying Liu1
Estimated H-index: 1
(CSU: Central South University)
+ 2 AuthorsXin-ming Zhang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(CSU: Central South University)
Abstract In order to improve the corrosion resistance of micro arc oxidized coating on 2519 aluminum alloy, a thin layer of polypropylene (PP) film was prepared on its surface. The structure and corrosion protection properties of the coatings were investigated. The corrosion resistance of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coating can be improved effectively by forming of this kind of thin film due to the physical barrier effect of PP film and the sealing effect of the micro defects in MAO coating by PP....
Published on Sep 1, 2013in Infrared Physics & Technology 2.31
Mohannad M.S. Al Bosta5
Estimated H-index: 5
(CHU: Chung Hua University),
Keng-Jeng Ma2
Estimated H-index: 2
(CHU: Chung Hua University),
Hsi-Hsin Chien2
Estimated H-index: 2
(CHU: Chung Hua University)
Abstract MAO ceramic coatings were prepared on aluminium 6061 surfaces at different treating durations (10, 20, ... 60 min), using alkali silicate electrolyte and pulsed bipolar current mode. The surface microstructures and properties were studied using SEM, XRD, EDX and a surface roughness tester. Image-Pro Plus and MATCH! softwares were used to analyze SEM micrographs and XRD results, respectively. The infrared emissivities of the ceramic coatings were measured at the 70 °C using FTIR spectrom...
Published on Aug 1, 2013in Electrochimica Acta 5.38
Agnieszka Krząkała9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Silesian University of Technology),
Katarzyna Służalska3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Jagiellonian University)
+ 9 AuthorsA. Iwaniak4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Silesian University of Technology)
Abstract In an attempt to increase the bioactivity and corrosion resistance of a vanadium-free titanium alloy Ti–6Al–7Nb, the electrolytic plasma oxidation (PEO) process for surface modification was utilised. Select samples were subjected to further treatment, either thermal or alkali. The morphology, chemical composition and phase composition of the ground and treated Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy substrates were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (ED...
Published on Jul 1, 2013in Surface & Coatings Technology 3.19
Vahid Dehnavi5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UWO: University of Western Ontario),
Ben Li Luan4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UWO: University of Western Ontario)
+ 2 AuthorsSohrab Rohani35
Estimated H-index: 35
(UWO: University of Western Ontario)
Abstract Ceramic coatings were created on the surface of 6061 aluminum alloy using a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process employing a pulsed direct current (DC) power mode in an alkaline electrolyte. The effect of electrical parameters including frequency and duty cycle on the microdischarge behavior and coating growth was investigated at constant current. Surface features of coatings were studied using scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was employed to investiga...
Published on Jul 1, 2013in Corrosion 1.86
J.B. Bajat2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Belgrade),
Vasilić R2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 1 AuthorsV. Mišković-Stanković1
Estimated H-index: 1
Electrochemical properties of oxide coatings formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on aluminum in sodium tungstate (Na2WO4·2H2O) with respect to process time were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Presence of tungsten was beneficial for the corrosion stability of obtained oxide coatings. However, neither the amount of tungsten in the oxide coating nor the coatings thickness were identified as important factors in corrosion stability of PEO coatings, i.e., m...
Cited By3
Newest
Published on Apr 1, 2019in Journal of materials research and technology 3.33
Matheus de M. Tavares , Jussier de Oliveira Vitoriano3
Estimated H-index: 3
+ 4 AuthorsClodomiro Alves-Júnior4
Estimated H-index: 4
Abstract Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is an environmentally friendly anodizing technique that produces ceramic coatings using high voltage discharges. To the present work this technique was applied to treat aluminum surfaces using a pulsed current supply and sodium silicate electrolyte. The effect of the duty cycle and treatment time on the morphology, phase composition and tribo-mechanical properties of the formed layer was investigated. The current density was maintained at 12 A/dm 2 , ...
Published on May 1, 2018in Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 2.37
Anju M. Pillai4
Estimated H-index: 4
(ISRO: Indian Space Research Organisation),
A. Rajendra5
Estimated H-index: 5
(ISRO: Indian Space Research Organisation),
Anand Kumar Sharma21
Estimated H-index: 21
(ISRO: Indian Space Research Organisation)
Published on Nov 1, 2017in Materials Science 0.53
М. М. Student2
Estimated H-index: 2
(NAS: National Academy of Sciences),
V. М. Dovhunyk2
Estimated H-index: 2
(NAS: National Academy of Sciences)
+ 2 AuthorsV. М. Hvozdets’kyi1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NAS: National Academy of Sciences)
Published on Oct 1, 2017in Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance 1.48
Ashutosh Sharma13
Estimated H-index: 13
(SNU: Seoul National University),
Yong-Joo Jang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(SNU: Seoul National University),
Jae Pil Jung7
Estimated H-index: 7
(SNU: Seoul National University)
In this study, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process has been employed to fabricate alumina coatings on AA 6061 aluminum alloy from an electrolyte containing water glass (Na2SiO3) and alkali (KOH). The effect of deposition time and the alkali to water glass (KOH: Na2SiO3) composition ratio on the coating morphology and properties are studied. The different phases of the oxide layer and microstructure are investigated by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force micr...
Published on Nov 1, 2015
O tratamento de superficie dos materiais tem por finalidade conferir ao material novas caracteristicas sem alterar suas propriedades internas e, como consequencia disso, aumentar o campo de suas aplicacoes. Neste trabalho uma tecnica relativamente nova foi utilizada para criar filmes finos de oxidos em aluminio, denominada Plasma Eletrolitico de Oxidacao (PEO). Amostra de uma liga de aluminio foi tratada pelo processo de PEO, com diferentes tempos de exposicao, que variaram de 600 s a 1200 s. Es...