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HIV-1 integrase tetramers are the antiviral target of pyridine-based allosteric integrase inhibitors

Published on May 23, 2019in eLife7.551
· DOI :10.7554/eLife.46344
Pratibha C. Koneru4
Estimated H-index: 4
(CU: University of Colorado Boulder),
Ashwanth C. Francis5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Emory University)
+ 12 AuthorsMamuka Kvaratskhelia34
Estimated H-index: 34
(CU: University of Colorado Boulder)
Sources
Abstract
HIV-1 inserts its genetic code into human genomes, turning healthy cells into virus factories. To do this, the virus uses an enzyme called integrase. Front-line treatments against HIV-1 called “integrase strand-transfer inhibitors” stop this enzyme from working. These inhibitors have helped to revolutionize the treatment of HIV/AIDS by protecting the cells from new infections. But, the emergence of drug resistance remains a serious problem. As the virus evolves, it changes the shape of its integrase protein, substantially reducing the effectiveness of the current therapies. One way to overcome this problem is to develop other therapies that can kill the drug resistant viruses by targeting different parts of the integrase protein. It should be much harder for the virus to evolve the right combination of changes to escape two or more treatments at once. A promising class of new compounds are “allosteric integrase inhibitors”. These chemical compounds target a part of the integrase enzyme that the other treatments do not yet reach. Rather than stopping the integrase enzyme from inserting the viral code into the human genome, the new inhibitors make integrase proteins clump together and prevent the formation of infectious viruses. At the moment, these compounds are still experimental. Before they are ready for use in people, researchers need to better understand how they work, and there are several open questions to answer. Integrase proteins work in groups of four and it is not clear how the new compounds make the integrases form large clumps, or what this does to the virus. Understanding this should allow scientists to develop improved versions of the drugs. To answer these questions, Koneru et al. first examined two of the new compounds. A combination of molecular analysis and computer modelling revealed how they work. The compounds link many separate groups of four integrases with each other to form larger and larger clumps, essentially a snowball effect. Live images of infected cells showed that the clumps of integrase get stuck outside of the virus’s protective casing. This leaves them exposed, allowing the cell to destroy the integrase enzymes. Koneru et al. also made a new compound, called (-)-KF116. Not only was this compound able to tackle normal HIV-1, it could block viruses resistant to the other type of integrase treatment. In fact, in laboratory tests, it was 10 times more powerful against these resistant viruses. Together, these findings help to explain how allosteric integrase inhibitors work, taking scientists a step closer to bringing them into the clinic. In the future, new versions of the compounds, like (-)-KF116, could help to tackle drug resistance in HIV-1.
  • References (72)
  • Citations (2)
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References72
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#1Steven J. Smith (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 16
#2Xue Zhi Zhao (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 14
Last. Stephen H. Hughes (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 31
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Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are the class of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs most recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of HIV-1 infections. INSTIs block the strand transfer reaction catalyzed by HIV-1 integrase (IN) and have been shown to potently inhibit infection by wild-type HIV-1. Of the three current FDA-approved INSTIs, Dolutegravir (DTG), has been the most effective, in part because treatment does not readily select for resistant mutants. However, recent studies sho...
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#2Gregory B. Melikyan (Emory University)H-Index: 23
Summary The HIV-1 core consists of capsid proteins (CA) surrounding viral genomic RNA. After virus-cell fusion, the core enters the cytoplasm and the capsid shell is lost through uncoating. CA loss precedes nuclear import and HIV integration into the host genome, but the timing and location of uncoating remain unclear. By visualizing single HIV-1 infection, we find that CA is required for core docking at the nuclear envelope (NE), whereas early uncoating in the cytoplasm promotes proteasomal deg...
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Abstract The pyridine-based multimerization selective HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors (MINIs) are a distinct subclass of allosteric IN inhibitors. MINIs potently inhibit HIV-1 replication during virion maturation by inducing hyper- or aberrant IN multimerization but are largely ineffective during the early steps of viral replication. Here, we investigated the mechanism for the evolution of a triple IN substitution (T124N/V165I/T174I) that emerges in cell culture with a representative MINI, KF116...
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Retroviral integrase (IN) functions within the intasome nucleoprotein complex to catalyze insertion of viral DNA into cellular chromatin. Using cryo–electron microscopy, we now visualize the functional maedi-visna lentivirus intasome at 4.9 angstrom resolution. The intasome comprises a homo-hexadecamer of IN with a tetramer-of-tetramers architecture featuring eight structurally distinct types of IN protomers supporting two catalytically competent subunits. The conserved intasomal core, previousl...
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Like all retroviruses, HIV-1 irreversibly inserts a viral DNA (vDNA) copy of its RNA genome into host target DNA (tDNA). The intasome, a higher-order nucleoprotein complex composed of viral integrase (IN) and the ends of linear vDNA, mediates integration. Productive integration into host chromatin results in the formation of the strand transfer complex (STC) containing catalytically joined vDNA and tDNA. HIV-1 intasomes have been refractory to high-resolution structural studies. We used a solubl...
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ABSTRACT Nonenzymatic roles for HIV-1 integrase (IN) at steps prior to the enzymatic integration step have been reported. To obtain structural and functional insights into the nonenzymatic roles of IN, we performed genetic analyses of HIV-1 IN, focusing on a highly conserved Tyr15 in the N-terminal domain (NTD), which has previously been shown to regulate an equilibrium state between two NTD dimer conformations. Replacement of Tyr15 with alanine, histidine, or tryptophan prevented HIV-1 infectio...
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The allosteric inhibitors of integrase (termed ALLINIs) interfere with HIV replication by binding to the viral-encoded integrase (IN) protein. Surprisingly, ALLINIs interfere not with DNA integration but with viral particle assembly late during HIV replication. To investigate the ALLINI inhibitory mechanism, we crystallized full-length HIV-1 IN bound to the ALLINI GSK1264 and determined the structure of the complex at 4.4 A resolution. The structure shows GSK1264 buried between the IN C-terminal...
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A large number of HIV-1 integrase (IN) alterations, referred to as class II substitutions, exhibit pleotropic effects during virus replication. However, the underlying mechanism for the class II phenotype is not known. Here we demonstrate that all tested class II IN substitutions compromised IN-RNA binding in virions by one of three distinct mechanisms: i) markedly reducing IN levels thus precluding formation of IN complexes with viral RNA; ii) adversely affecting functional IN multimerization a...
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