Ashwanth C. Francis
Emory University
VirologyCapsidVirusVirus UncoatingBiology
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Publications 11
#1Yen-Cheng Chen (Emory University)H-Index: 3
#2Chetan Sood (Emory University)H-Index: 4
Last. Robert M. Dickson (Georgia Institute of Technology)H-Index: 38
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#2Akatsuki SaitoH-Index: 14
Last. Masahiro YamashitaH-Index: 22
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#1Pratibha C. Koneru (CU: University of Colorado Boulder)H-Index: 4
#2Ashwanth C. Francis (Emory University)H-Index: 5
Last. Mamuka Kvaratskhelia (CU: University of Colorado Boulder)H-Index: 34
view all 15 authors...
HIV-1 inserts its genetic code into human genomes, turning healthy cells into virus factories. To do this, the virus uses an enzyme called integrase. Front-line treatments against HIV-1 called “integrase strand-transfer inhibitors” stop this enzyme from working. These inhibitors have helped to revolutionize the treatment of HIV/AIDS by protecting the cells from new infections. But, the emergence of drug resistance remains a serious problem. As the virus evolves, it changes the shape of its integ...
2 CitationsSource
#1Pratibha C. Koneru (CU: University of Colorado Boulder)H-Index: 4
#2Ashwanth C. Francis (Emory University)H-Index: 5
Last. Mamuka Kvaratskhelia (CU: University of Colorado Boulder)H-Index: 34
view all 15 authors...
Live-cell imaging of single HIV-1 entry offers a unique opportunity to delineate the spatio-temporal regulation of infection. Novel virus labeling and imaging approaches enable the visualization of key steps of HIV-1 entry leading to nuclear import, integration into the host genome, and viral protein expression. Here, we discuss single virus imaging strategies, focusing on live-cell imaging of single virus fusion and productive uncoating that culminates in HIV-1 infection.
6 CitationsSource
#1Ashwanth C. Francis (Emory University)H-Index: 5
#2Gregory B. Melikyan (Emory University)H-Index: 23
Summary The HIV-1 core consists of capsid proteins (CA) surrounding viral genomic RNA. After virus-cell fusion, the core enters the cytoplasm and the capsid shell is lost through uncoating. CA loss precedes nuclear import and HIV integration into the host genome, but the timing and location of uncoating remain unclear. By visualizing single HIV-1 infection, we find that CA is required for core docking at the nuclear envelope (NE), whereas early uncoating in the cytoplasm promotes proteasomal deg...
20 CitationsSource
#1Chetan SoodH-Index: 4
Last. Gregory B. MelikyanH-Index: 23
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#1Jimmy P. XuH-Index: 2
#2Ashwanth FrancisH-Index: 1
Last. Simon CocklinH-Index: 19
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2 Citations
#1Chetan Sood (Emory University)H-Index: 4
#2Ashwanth C. Francis (Emory University)H-Index: 5
Last. Gregory B. Melikyan (Emory University)H-Index: 23
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Enveloped viruses transfer their genomes into host cells by fusing their membrane to that of the cell. To visualize single-virus fusion in living cells, researchers take advantage of HIV-1's proteolytic maturation, which can generate free fluorescent proteins within the viral particle. Co-labeling viruses with a content marker and a fluorescently tagged Vpr (a viral core protein) enables detection of single-virus fusions, but a major limitation of this approach is that not all viral par...
7 CitationsSource
#1Jason Hammonds (Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center)H-Index: 15
#2Neal Beeman (Emory University)H-Index: 8
Last. Paul Spearman (Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center)H-Index: 38
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HIV-1 particles assemble and bud from the plasma membrane of infected T lymphocytes. Infected macrophages, in contrast, accumulate particles within an apparent intracellular compartment known as the virus-containing compartment or VCC. Many aspects of the formation and function of the VCC remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that VCC formation does not actually require infection of the macrophage, but can be reproduced through the exogenous addition of non-infectious virus-like particles or infec...
25 CitationsSource