Potential reservoirs and routes of Cronobacter transmission during cereal growing, processing and consumption

Published on Jun 1, 2019in Food Microbiology 4.09
· DOI :10.1016/j.fm.2018.12.004
Xiuqin Lou1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention),
Hua Yu2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
+ 9 AuthorsZhiguo Fang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Zhejiang Gongshang University)
Abstract Cronobacter are opportunistic bacterial pathogens of both infants and adults. We investigated the incidence and distribution of Cronobacter in 1245 samples of cereal and related environments. 39.1% (101/258) rice-related and 46.9% (98/209) wheat-related samples tested positive for Cronobacter , and the positive rate differed notably according to processing method. Cronobacter was found in rice and wheat plants at the tillering, filling and mature stages. Soil, water and swab samples from nearby milling plants were assayed, and results revealed that 6.3% (7/122) of water from paddy fields, 49.1% (28/57) and 62.1% (41/67) of swab samples from rice and wheat flour milling plants were Cronobacter positive. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtyping indicated that some strains had a common profile, which suggested their persistence in the environment, potential transmission routes and cross-contamination in processing. Finally, we surveyed 18 families to evaluate potential risks. None of the families who primarily ate rice cooked with water tested positive for Cronobacter , though of 66.7% families (6/9) whose food staples were produced from wheat flour tested positive. Taken together, our results are important for understanding Cronobacter transmission and will aid in the development of additional control measures to reduce the risk of infection by these opportunistic pathogenic bacteria.
  • References (32)
  • Citations (0)
A. Alsonosi1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Nottingham Trent University),
Sumyya Hariri7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Nottingham Trent University)
+ 8 AuthorsStephen J. Forsythe40
Estimated H-index: 40
(Nottingham Trent University)
The World Health Organization (WHO) has recognised all Cronobacter species as human pathogens. Among premature neonates and immunocompromised infants, these infections can be life-threatening, with clinical presentations of septicaemia, meningitis and necrotising enterocolitis. The neurological sequelae can be permanent and the mortality rate as high as 40–80 %. Despite the highlighted issues of neonatal infections, the majority of Cronobacter infections are in the elderly population suffering f...
40 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 2015in Cereal Foods World 1.56
Y. Li1
Estimated H-index: 1
J.-F. Liang1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 2 AuthorsB.-Z. Han1
Estimated H-index: 1
Chinese rice noodles are a popular and traditional food item in southern China and have been a staple in the Chinese diet since ancient times. Various types of rice noodles are manufactured in several different shapes and are prepared from two basic ingredients: rice and water. The process for making rice noodles includes soaking, grinding, heating (steaming or boiling), molding (extruding or cutting), cooling, and drying. Classification of different types of rice noodles is based, in part, on t...
4 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2016in International Journal of Food Microbiology 3.45
Hana Vojkovská2
Estimated H-index: 2
Renata Karpíšková12
Estimated H-index: 12
+ 1 AuthorsHana Drahovská15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Comenius University in Bratislava)
Abstract The Cronobacter genus (previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii ) comprises seven species ( Cronobacter sakazakii , Cronobacter malonaticus , Cronobacter muytjensii , Cronobacter turicensis , Cronobacter dublinensis , Cronobacter universalis and Cronobacter condimenti ) which cause serious infections in neonates and immunocompromised people. Most of the documented outbreaks of these bacteria have been associated with consumption of contaminated powdered infant formula. The plant envir...
22 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2015in SpringerPlus
Norrakiah Abdullah Sani8
Estimated H-index: 8
(National University of Malaysia),
Olumide A. Odeyemi5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Tasmania)
Cronobacter species are motile, non-spore forming, Gram negative emerging opportunistic pathogens mostly associated with bacteremia, meningitis, septicemia, brain abscesses and necrotizing enterocolitis in infected neonates, infants and immunocompromised adults. Members of the genus Cronobacter are previously associated with powdered infant formula although the main reservoir and routes of contamination are yet to be ascertained. This study therefore aim to summarize occurrence and prevalence of...
8 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2010in International Journal of Food Microbiology 3.45
Felix Reich7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover),
R. König1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover)
+ 1 AuthorsGünter Klein24
Estimated H-index: 24
(University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover)
Abstract From November 2005 to August 2006, microbiological analyses were performed in a processing plant for powdered infant formula (PIF) to estimate the occurrence and dissemination of Cronobacter spp. and the contamination levels of Enterobacteriaceae in the processing environment. In total 867 samples were collected from the dry processing environment including powders from vacuum cleaners and filtering (sieving) machines, fluids from the drains and swabs from contact surfaces. In total 35 ...
45 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 1, 2015in Food Microbiology 4.09
Monika Garbowska4
Estimated H-index: 4
Anna Berthold-Pluta4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Warsaw University of Life Sciences),
Lidia Stasiak-Różańska4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Warsaw University of Life Sciences)
Abstract The cultivation of spices and herbs in parts of the world characterized by warm climate and high humidity provides excellent conditions for the development of microorganisms, including the undesirable ones. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of spices and herbs available on the Polish market, considering the occurrence of Cronobacter species bacteria. Analyses covered 60 samples of commercial spices and herbs, including 38 samples of dried herbs (basil, b...
20 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 2007in International Journal of Food Microbiology 3.45
Niall Mullane15
Estimated H-index: 15
(University College Dublin),
Paul Whyte31
Estimated H-index: 31
(University College Dublin)
+ 2 AuthorsSéamus Fanning46
Estimated H-index: 46
(University College Dublin)
Enterobacter sakazakii (E. sakazakii) contamination of powdered infant formula (PIF) and its processing environment was monitored between April 2005 and March 2006. The purpose of the monitoring programme was to locate points of contamination, investigate clonal persistence, and identify possible dissemination routes along the processing chain. A total of 80 E. sakazakii isolates were recovered from the manufacturing facility. The overall frequency of isolation of E. sakazakii in intermediate an...
95 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2013in Molecular and Cellular Probes 1.69
Esin Cetinkaya2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Ankara University),
Susan Joseph12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Nottingham Trent University)
+ 1 AuthorsStephen J. Forsythe40
Estimated H-index: 40
(Nottingham Trent University)
Abstract Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii ) can be isolated from a wide range of foods and environments, and its association with neonatal infections has drawn considerable attention from regulatory authorities. The principle route of neonatal infection has been identified as the ingestion of contaminated infant formula. A number of methods have been developed to identify Cronobacter spp., however these were before the most recent (2012) taxonomic revision of the genus into seve...
36 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2012in Journal of Food Protection 1.51
Sarah Norberg4
Estimated H-index: 4
Catherine Stanton72
Estimated H-index: 72
+ 3 AuthorsPaul D. Cotter60
Estimated H-index: 60
Cronobacter species are opportunistic pathogens, and a mortality rate of 40 to 80% is associated with infections. This pathogen can cause a range of serious diseases such as meningitis, septicemia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and brain abscesses and has been responsible for a variety of sequelae such as quadriplegia. Although Cronobacter can cause disease in both adults and infants, infant infections associated with powdered formula are the focus of this review. Since the first reported Cronobact...
51 Citations Source Cite
M. Friedemann1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Federal Institute for Risk Assessment)
About 120–150 neonatal Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) infections have been described. An analysis of current case numbers, epidemiological measures and risk factors is warranted. Data of microbiologically confirmed cases, published between 2000 and 2008, have been analysed statistically. More than 100 neonatal Cronobacter infections have been reported in this period. The overall lethality of the 67 invasive infections was 26.9%. The lethality of Cronobacter meningitis, bacteraemia and...
93 Citations Source Cite
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