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Published on Dec 1, 2017in Journal of International Business Studies 7.72
Jan-Erik Vahlne19
Estimated H-index: 19
(University of Gothenburg),
Jan Johanson47
Estimated H-index: 47
(Uppsala University)
Abstract The original Uppsala model that was published in 1977 explains the internationalization process of firms. We have further developed the model several times in the intervening years. The present article is our latest effort: a general model of the evolution of the multinational business enterprise (MBE), from early steps abroad to being a global firm. The updated, augmented model explains MBE evolution in general, not only characteristics of the internationalization process in a narrow s...
Published on Dec 1, 2017in Journal of International Business Studies 7.72
Nicole Coviello29
Estimated H-index: 29
(WLU: Wilfrid Laurier University),
Liena Kano11
Estimated H-index: 11
(U of C: University of Calgary),
Peter W. Liesch23
Estimated H-index: 23
(UQ: University of Queensland)
Abstract Vahlne and Johanson (2017) present the multinational business enterprise (MBE) as a new form of cross-border organization that supersedes the multinational enterprise (MNE). They offer a ‘general model of the evolution of the MBE,’ arguing that the MBE evolves through ongoing internationalization processes by proactively and entrepreneurially engaging in business exchange rather than production. In this counterpoint, we focus on two critical dimensions absent from Vahlne and Johanson’s ...
Published on Oct 1, 2017in Journal of International Business Studies 7.72
James E. Clarke2
Estimated H-index: 2
Peter W. Liesch23
Estimated H-index: 23
(UQ: University of Queensland)
We interpret the wait-and-see strategy as a decision to maintain unchanged the firm’s commitments to its business network relationships. To explain why firms choose a wait-and-see strategy, we propose an extension to the relationship commitment decisions aspect of the Uppsala internationalization process (IP) Model. With this development, we explain that the wait-and-see strategy can result from a change in the levels of risk assumed in the firm and not only from the decision to adjust the risk ...
Published on Jan 1, 2017in Journal of Management 9.06
Nicolai J. Foss72
Estimated H-index: 72
(Bocconi University),
Tina Saebi7
Estimated H-index: 7
(NHH: Norwegian School of Economics)
Over the last 15 years, business model innovation (BMI) has gained an increasing amount of attention in management research and among practitioners. The emerging BMI literature addresses an important phenomenon but lacks theoretical underpinning, and empirical inquiry is not cumulative. Thus, a concerted research effort seems warranted. Accordingly, we take stock of the extant literature on BMI. We identify and analyze 150 peer-reviewed scholarly articles on BMI published between 2000 and 2015. ...
Published on Jun 1, 2016in Journal of International Business Studies 7.72
Keith D. Brouthers30
Estimated H-index: 30
('KCL': King's College London),
Kim Dung Geisser1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Mainz),
Franz Rothlauf19
Estimated H-index: 19
(University of Mainz)
Information and communication technologies have given rise to a new type of firm, the ibusiness firm. These firms offer a platform that allows users to interact with each other and generate value through user co-creation of content. Because of this, ibusiness firms face different challenges when they internationalize compared with traditional firms, even those online. In this article we extend existing internationalization theory to encompass this new type of organization. We theorize that becau...
Published on Mar 1, 2015in Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal 2.96
Stephen K. Kim12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Iowa State University),
Sungwook Min7
Estimated H-index: 7
(LBSU: California State University, Long Beach)
Many incumbent firms respond to the emergence of a disruptive business model by adding the business model into their existing ones. But, not all incumbents perform better after adding new business models to their existing ones; that raises the question about the conditions under which adding a new business model improves incumbent performance. We develop a theoretical framework to address that question. After identifying two types of incumbent assets, complementary and conflicting, we highlight ...
Published on Jan 1, 2014
Frank Elter2
Estimated H-index: 2
Paul N. Gooderham18
Estimated H-index: 18
Svein Ulset2
Estimated H-index: 2
Abstract This paper revisits Bartlett and Ghoshal’s transnational theory of the MNC in relation to multi-domestic MNCs. We argue that the aggregate level of analysis adopted by Bartlett and Ghoshal is unhelpful for identifying significant changes in multi-domestic MNCs at the level of discrete functions. We argue that a more disaggregated level of analysis is required. Our analysis of two cases of multi-domestic MNCs that have undertaken the global integration of their locally distributed purcha...
Published on Jun 1, 2012in International Business Review 3.64
Chang Hoon Oh21
Estimated H-index: 21
(Brock University),
Alan M. Rugman56
Estimated H-index: 56
(University of Reading)
From the perspective of regional economic integration we decompose international strategy into regional integration strategy and three types of global strategy (global sales, global production, and pure global integration). Using 1100 firm-year observations we find that 60% of the largest European firms pursue a regional integration strategy. We also find that global strategies vary. We examine the firm specific factors that affect global strategies. In general, R&D capability determines a globa...
Published on Dec 1, 2009in Journal of International Business Studies 7.72
Jan Johanson47
Estimated H-index: 47
(Uppsala University),
Jan-Erik Vahlne19
Estimated H-index: 19
(University of Gothenburg)
The Uppsala internationalization process model is revisited in the light of changes in business practices and theoretical advances that have been made since 1977. Now the business environment is viewed as a web of relationships, a network, rather than as a neoclassical market with many independent suppliers and customers. Outsidership, in relation to the relevant network, more than psychic distance, is the root of uncertainty. The change mechanisms in the revised model are essentially the same a...
Published on Mar 1, 2008in Journal of International Business Studies 7.72
Thomas Osegowitsch6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Melbourne),
André Sammartino6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Melbourne)
Alan Rugman and co-authors argue that globalisation, and with it global strategy, is a myth. This contention rests on a taxonomy of the world's largest firms based on their sales, showing an overwhelming share of home-regional firms. We question the rationales underpinning their classification scheme. When retesting the data using different schema we find that the original results are far from robust, with a significant share of firms attaining bi-regional or global status. Further longitudinal ...