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Several structural motifs cooperate in determining the highly effective anti-thrombin activity of NU172 aptamer.

Published on Oct 17, 2018in Nucleic Acids Research11.147
· DOI :10.2210/pdb6evv/pdb
Romualdo Troisi2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Naples Federico II),
Valeria Napolitano3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Naples Federico II)
+ 2 AuthorsFilomena Sica25
Estimated H-index: 25
(University of Naples Federico II)
Abstract
: Despite aptamers are very promising alternative to antibodies, very few of them are under clinical trials or are used as drugs. Among them, NU172 is currently in Phase II as anticoagulant in heart disease treatments. It inhibits thrombin activity much more effectively than TBA, the best-known thrombin binding aptamer. The crystal structure of thrombin-NU172 complex reveals a bimodular duplex/quadruplex architecture for the aptamer, which binds thrombin exosite I through a highly complementary surface involving all three loops of the G-quadruplex module. Although the duplex domain does not interact directly with thrombin, the features of the duplex/quadruplex junction and the solution data on two newly designed NU172 mutants indicate that the duplex moiety is important for the optimization of the protein-ligand interaction and for the inhibition of the enzyme activity. Our work discloses the structural features determining the inhibition of thrombin by NU172 and put the basis for the design of mutants with improved properties.
  • References (51)
  • Citations (3)
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References51
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#1Rafał Dolot (PAN: Polish Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 6
#2Curtis H. LamH-Index: 10
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: Thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) is a DNA 15-mer of sequence 5'-GGT TGG TGT GGT TGG-3' that folds into a G-quadruplex structure linked by two T-T loops located on one side and a T-G-T loop on the other. These loops are critical for post-SELEX modification to improve TBA target affinity. With this goal in mind we synthesized a T analog, 5-(indolyl-3-acetyl-3-amino-1-propenyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (W) to substitute one T or a pair of Ts. Subsequently, the affinity for each analog was determined by biol...
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Introduction Several studies have measured health outcomes in the United States, but none have provided a comprehensive assessment of patterns of health by state. Objective To use the results of the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) to report trends in the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors at the state level from 1990 to 2016. Design and Setting A systematic analysis of published studies and available data sources estimates the burden of disease by age, sex, geography, and year. ...
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#1Irene Russo Krauss (University of Naples Federico II)H-Index: 16
#2Valeria Napolitano (University of Naples Federico II)H-Index: 3
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Abstract Recently, mixed duplex/quadruplex oligonucleotides have attracted great interest for use as biomedical aptamers. In the case of anti-thrombin aptamers, the addition of duplex-forming sequences to a G-quadruplex module identical or very similar to the best-known G-quadruplex of the Thrombin Binding Aptamer (HD1) results in new or improved biological properties, such as higher activity or different recognition properties with respect to HD1. Remarkably, this bimodular fold was hypothesize...
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Progress in understanding and treatment of thrombotic diseases requires new effective methods for the easy, rapid, and reversible control of coagulation processes. In this framework, the use of aptamers, and particularly of the thrombin binding aptamer (TBA), has aroused strong interest, due to its enormous therapeutic potential, associated with a large number of possible applications in biotechnological and bioanalytical fields. Here, we describe a new TBA analogue (named tris-mTBA), carrying t...
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Aptamers directed against human thrombin can selectively bind to two different exosites on the protein surface. The simultaneous use of two DNA aptamers, HD1 and HD22, directed to exosite I and exosite II respectively, is a very powerful approach to exploit their combined affinity. Indeed, strategies to link HD1 and HD22 together have been proposed in order to create a single bivalent molecule with an enhanced ability to control thrombin activity. In this work, the crystal structures of two tern...
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Aptamers are single-stranded nucleic acid molecules that bind to and inhibit proteins and are commonly produced by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Aptamers undergo extensive pharmacological revision, which alters affinity, specificity, and therapeutic half-life, tailoring each drug for a specific clinical need. The first therapeutic aptamer was described 25 years ago. Thus far, one aptamer has been approved for clinical use, and numerous others are in preclinic...
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Thrombin is a key enzyme of blood coagulation system which has multiple functions including pro- and anticoagulant, platelet aggregating and inflammatory activities. Unsurprisingly, this enzyme has been a target for anticoagulant drug development for decades. Among the most interesting direct thrombin inhibitors with intravenous administration route are the following ones: 1) hirudins, proteins with bivalent binding mode to the thrombin, 2) bivalirudin, the peptide with bivalent binding mode to ...
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Thromboembolic conditions were estimated to account for 1 in 4 deaths worldwide in 2010 and are the leading cause of mortality. Thromboembolic conditions are divided into arterial and venous thrombotic conditions. Ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke comprise the major arterial thromboses and deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism comprise venous thromboembolism. Atrial fibrillation is a major risk factor for stroke and systemic arterial thromboembolism. Estimates of the global burden...
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#1S. K. Haßel (University of Bonn)H-Index: 1
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