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Quality Traits of “Cannabidiol Oils”: Cannabinoids Content, Terpene Fingerprint and Oxidation Stability of European Commercially Available Preparations

Published on May 20, 2018in Molecules3.06
· DOI :10.3390/molecules23051230
Radmila Pavlovic11
Estimated H-index: 11
,
Giorgio Nenna1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 5 AuthorsAnnamaria Giorgi12
Estimated H-index: 12
Sources
Abstract
Cannabidiol (CBD)-based oil preparations are becoming extremely popular, as CBD has been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. CBD-based oil preparations are not unambiguously regulated under the European legislation, as CBD is not considered as a controlled substance. This means that companies can produce and distribute CBD products derived from non-psychoactive hemp varieties, providing an easy access to this extremely advantageous cannabinoid. This leaves consumers with no legal quality guarantees. The objective of this project was to assess the quality of 14 CBD oils commercially available in European countries. An in-depth chemical profiling of cannabinoids, terpenes and oxidation products was conducted by means of GC-MS and HPLC-Q-Exactive-Orbitrap-MS in order to improve knowledge regarding the characteristics of CBD oils. Nine out of the 14 samples studied had concentrations that differed notably from the declared amount, while the remaining five preserved CBD within optimal limits. Our results highlighted a wide variability in cannabinoids profile that justifies the need for strict and standardized regulations. In addition, the terpenes fingerprint may serve as an indicator of the quality of hemp varieties, while the lipid oxidation products profile could contribute in evaluation of the stability of the oil used as milieu for CBD rich extracts.
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References34
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#1Lorenzo Calvi (University of Milan)H-Index: 2
#2Daniela Pentimalli (University of Milan)H-Index: 3
Last. Annamaria Giorgi (University of Milan)H-Index: 12
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Abstract There are at least 554 identified compounds in C. sativa L., among them 113 phytocannabinoids and 120 terpenes. Phytocomplex composition differences between the pharmaceutical properties of different medical cannabis chemotype have been attributed to strict interactions, defined as ‘entourage effect’, between cannabinoids and terpenes as a result of synergic action. The chemical complexity of its bioactive constituents highlight the need for standardised and well-defined analytical appr...
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Abstract Hemp seed oil from Cannabis sativa L. is a very rich natural source of important nutrients, not only polyunsaturated fatty acids and proteins, but also terpenes and cannabinoids, which contribute to the overall beneficial effects of the oil. Hence, it is important to have an analytical method for the determination of these components in commercial samples. At the same time, it is also important to assess the safety of the product in terms of amount of any psychoactive cannabinoid presen...
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#1Thomas M. Attard (Ebor: University of York)H-Index: 9
#2Camille Bainier (Ebor: University of York)H-Index: 1
Last. Andrew J. Hunt (Ebor: University of York)H-Index: 31
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Abstract Up to 33% of hemp by mass can be lost in the form of dust during processing for fibre production. Heptane Soxhlet extractions and supercritical carbon dioxide extractions (scCO2) of hemp dust samples yielded significant quantities of high value lipophilic molecules including fatty acids, policosanols (fatty alcohols), fatty aldehydes, hydrocarbons, sterols, triterpenoids and cannabinoids (cannabidiol (CBD)). Dust collected from different stages of the mechanical processing of hemp fibre...
6 CitationsSource
#1Chiara Carcieri (UNITO: University of Turin)H-Index: 7
#2Cristina Tomasello (UNITO: University of Turin)H-Index: 4
Last. Antonio D'Avolio (UNITO: University of Turin)H-Index: 26
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Objectives Knowledge of the exact concentration of active compounds in galenic preparations is crucial to be able to ensure their quality and to properly administer the prescribed dose. Currently, the need for titration of extracts is still debated. Considering this, together with the absence of a standard preparation method, the aim of this study was to evaluate cannabinoids concentrations variability in galenic olive oil extracts, to evaluate the interlot and interlaboratory variability in the...
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Abstract Cannabis products have recently regained much attention due to the high pharmacological potential of their cannabinoid content. In this review, the most widely used sample preparation strategies for the extraction of cannabinoids are described for the specific application to either plant materials or biological matrices. Several analytical techniques are described pointing out their respective advantages and drawbacks. In particular, chromatographic methods, such as TLC, GC and HPLC, ar...
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#1Antonella Casiraghi (University of Milan)H-Index: 15
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Recently, an increasing number of pharmacists had to supply medicinal products based on Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae), prescribed by physicians to individual patients. Cannabis olive oil preparation is the first choice as a concentrated extract of cannabinoids, even though standardized operative conditions for obtaining it are still not available. In this work, the impact of temperature and extraction time on the concentration of active principles was studied to harmonize the different compou...
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An advanced Mendelian Cannabis breeding program has been developed utilizing chemical markers to maximize the yield of phytocannabinoids and terpenoids with the aim to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. Cannabis is often divided into several categories based on cannabinoid content. Type I, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol-predominant, is the prevalent offering in both medical and recreational marketplaces. In recent years, the therapeutic benefits of cannabidiol have been better recognized, leadi...
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A recent cannabis use survey revealed that 60% of cannabis users rely on smelling the flower to select their cannabis. Olfactory indicators in plants include volatile compounds, principally represented by the terpenoid fraction. Currently, medicinal- and adult-use cannabis is marketed in the United States with relatively little differentiation between products other than by a common name, association with a species type, and Δ-9 tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol potency. Because of this practice,...
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#1Carola Rong (UHN: University Health Network)H-Index: 8
#2Yena Lee (U of T: University of Toronto)H-Index: 13
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Abstract The high and increasing prevalence of medical marijuana consumption in the general population invites the need for quality evidence regarding its safety and efficacy. Herein, we synthesize extant literature pertaining to the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) and its brain effects. The principle phytocannabinoid Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC) and CBD are the major pharmacologically active cannabinoids. The effect of CBD on brain systems as well as on phenomenological measures (e.g...
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