Body composition by DXA

Published on Nov 1, 2017in Bone4.36
· DOI :10.1016/j.bone.2017.06.010
John A. Shepherd49
Estimated H-index: 49
(UCSF: University of California, San Francisco),
Bennett K. Ng6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UCSF: University of California, San Francisco)
+ 1 AuthorsSteven B. Heymsfield111
Estimated H-index: 111
(UCSF: University of California, San Francisco)
Abstract Body composition measurements from DXA have been available since DXA technology was developed 30 years ago, but are historically underutilized. Recently, there have been rapid developments in body composition assessment including the analysis and publication of representative data for the US, official usage guidance from the International Society for Clinical Densitometry, and development of regional body composition measures with clinical utility. DXA body composition is much more than whole body percent fat. In this paper celebrating 30 years of DXA for body composition, we will review the principles of DXA soft tissue analysis, practical clinical and research applications, and what to look for in the future.
  • References (39)
  • Citations (23)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
1 Author (J Wells)
2 Citations
65 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
#1John A. Shepherd (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 49
#2Bennett K. Ng (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 6
Last. Timothy F. Cootes (University of Manchester)H-Index: 64
view all 10 authors...
There is growing evidence that body shape and regional body composition are strong indicators of metabolic health. The purpose of this study was to develop statistical models that accurately describe holistic body shape, thickness, and leanness. We hypothesized that there are unique body shape features that are predictive of mortality beyond standard clinical measures. We developed algorithms to process whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans into body thickness and leanness imag...
3 CitationsSource
#1Benjamin Hinton (UCSF: University of California, San Francisco)H-Index: 2
#2Bo Fan (UCSF: University of California, San Francisco)H-Index: 29
Last. John A. Shepherd (UCSF: University of California, San Francisco)H-Index: 49
view all 4 authors...
Body Mass Index has traditionally been used as a measure of health, but Fat Mass Index (FMI) and Lean Mass Index (LMI) have been shown to be more predictive of mortality and health risk. Total body FMI and LMI reference curves have particularly been useful in quantifying sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity. Research has shown regional composition has significant associations to health outcomes. We derived FMI and LMI reference curves of the regions of the body (leg, arm, and trunk) for 15,908 indi...
8 CitationsSource
#1John A. Shepherd (UCSF: University of California, San Francisco)H-Index: 49
#2Markus J. Sommer (UCSF: University of California, San Francisco)H-Index: 4
Last. George K. Siberry (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 22
view all 10 authors...
Objective To evaluate a novel technique designed to reduce the negative impact of motion artifacts in infant dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. Study design Using cross-sectional data from a large multicenter study, we developed and tested advanced methods for infant scan analysis. Newborns (n = 750) received spine and whole-body DXA scans with up to 3 attempts to acquire a motion free scan. Precision of infant DXA was estimated from visits with multiple valid scans. Accuracy of regio...
3 CitationsSource
#1David R. Weber (UR: University of Rochester)H-Index: 12
#2Jin Long (Stanford University)H-Index: 12
Last. Joshua F. Baker (UPenn: University of Pennsylvania)H-Index: 24
view all 5 authors...
Background Recent studies suggest that adjustment of measures of lean mass for adiposity improves associations with physical function. Our objective was to develop and test a method to adjust appendicular lean mass for adiposity. Methods Whole-body DXA data in 14,850 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to generate sex-, and race-specific standard deviation scores (Z-Scores relative to age and T-scores relative to 25 year-olds) for appendicular lean mass index...
13 CitationsSource
#1John A. Shepherd (UCSF: University of California, San Francisco)H-Index: 49
There are four body composition phenotypes widely used to describe older adults: normal, sarcopenic, obese, and sarcopenic obese. In this paper, we will discuss how DXA can be used to quantify body composition and how DXA can identify patients with sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity.
2 CitationsSource
#1Elizabeth Joy (Intermountain Healthcare)H-Index: 8
#2Andrea Kussman (UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)H-Index: 3
Last. Aurelia Nattiv (UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)H-Index: 20
view all 3 authors...
Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, can have devastating effects on both the health and performance of athletes. Compared to non-athletes, both female and male athletes are at higher risk of developing an eating disorder. This is especially true for athletes participating in sports where low body weight or leanness confers a competitive advantage. Screening for disordered eating behaviours, eating disorders and for related health consequences should be a standard comp...
59 CitationsSource
#1Michael Drey (LMU: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)H-Index: 14
#2Cornell C. Sieber (FAU: University of Erlangen-Nuremberg)H-Index: 43
Last. Ralf Schmidmaier (LMU: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)H-Index: 20
view all 5 authors...
Background Sarcopenia and osteopenia/osteoporosis show a high prevalence in old age and incur a high risk for falls, fractures, and further functional decline. Physical performance and bone metabolism in patients suffering from the so-called osteosarcopenia—the combination of sarcopenia and osteopenia—are currently still unknown.
45 CitationsSource
#1Heike A. Bischoff-Ferrari (UZH: University of Zurich)H-Index: 40
#2John Orav (Harvard University)H-Index: 33
Last. Bess Dawson-Hughes (Tufts University)H-Index: 102
view all 8 authors...
Summary In this study, we compare the extent to which seven available definitions of sarcopenia and two related definitions predict the rate of falling. Our results suggest that the definitions of Baumgartner and Cruz-Jentoft best predict the rate of falls among sarcopenic versus non-sarcopenic community-dwelling seniors.
64 CitationsSource
#1Matt Jordan (U of C: University of Calgary)H-Index: 2
#2Per Aagaard (University of Southern Denmark)H-Index: 79
Last. Walter Herzog (U of C: University of Calgary)H-Index: 69
view all 3 authors...
Due to a high incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) re-injury in alpine ski racers, this study aims to assess functional asymmetry in the countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), and leg muscle mass in elite ski racers with and without anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R). Elite alpine skiers with ACL-R (n = 9; 26.2 ± 11.8 months post-op) and uninjured skiers (n = 9) participated in neuromuscular screening. Vertical ground reaction force during the CMJ and SJ was assesse...
24 CitationsSource
#1Jasminka Z. Ilich (FSU: Florida State University)H-Index: 30
#2Julia E. Inglis (FSU: Florida State University)H-Index: 6
Last. D. L. McGee (FSU: Florida State University)H-Index: 1
view all 4 authors...
Summary We determined the prevalence of osteosarcopenic obesity (loss of bone and muscle coexistent with increased adiposity) in overweight/obese postmenopausal women and compared their functionality to obese-only women. Results showed that osteosarcopenic obese women were outperformed by obese-only women in handgrip strength and walking/balance abilities indicating their higher risk for mobility impairments.
29 CitationsSource
Cited By23
#1Ryan J. Larsen (UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)H-Index: 12
#2Lauren B. Raine (NU: Northeastern University)H-Index: 25
Last. Aron Keith Barbey (UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)H-Index: 27
view all 6 authors...
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy provides measures of brain chemistry that are sensitive to cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition. The concentration of N-acetyl aspartic acid (NAA) is of interest because it is a marker of neuronal integrity. The ratio of NAA to creatine, a standard reference metabolite, has been shown to correlate with measures of both cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition. However, previous studies have explored these effects in isolation, making it impossible ...
#1Satoshi Matsuno (American Physical Therapy Association)
view all 3 authors...
Last. RuiCURIH-Index: 65
view all 6 authors...
In the ordinary course of aging, individuals change their body composition, mainly reducing their skeletal muscle mass and increasing their fat mass. In association, muscle strength and functionality also decrease. The geriatric assessment allows knowing the baseline situation of the patients, determines the impact of diseases, and defines specific treatments. There are various tools to evaluate the health condition of older people. These tools include the assessment scales of necessary Activiti...
#1Alexander Frenzel (Leipzig University)H-Index: 1
#2Hans Binder (Leipzig University)H-Index: 35
Last. Henry Löffler-Wirth (Leipzig University)H-Index: 9
view all 6 authors...
Body shape and composition are heterogeneous among humans with possible impact for health. Anthropometric methods and data are needed to better describe the diversity of the human body in human populations, its age dependence, and associations with health risk. We applied whole-body laser scanning to a cohort of 8499 women and men of age 40–80 years within the frame of the LIFE (Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases) study aimed at discovering health risk in a middle European urban p...
#1Grant M. Tinsley (TTU: Texas Tech University)H-Index: 7
#2M. Lane Moore (TTU: Texas Tech University)
Abstract The validity of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MFBIA) for detecting changes in fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and body fat percentage (BF%) was evaluated, as compared to a rapid 4-component (4C) model, in 31 females completing 8 weeks of resistance training. Analyses were performed in all participants (ALL) and in subgroups that gained FFM but lost FM (R subgroup) or gained both FFM and FM (G subgroup). It was hypothesiz...
#1Carly E. Guss (Harvard University)H-Index: 3
Last. Catherine M. GordonH-Index: 46
view all 3 authors...
Abstract DXA plays a critical role in assessing skeletal health and disease, as well as, fat and muscle status in children and adolescents. Quality DXA requires training, expertise and attention to details, as in adults, but there are key differences in performing and interpretations in children. These include choice of measurement site, skills required, reference data and software, and considerations for indications and underlying disorders to facilitate correct interpretation. The Internationa...
#1Jalyn Mason (UK: University of Kentucky)
#2Christopher Morris (UK: University of Kentucky)
Last. Kyle Flack (UK: University of Kentucky)
view all 5 authors...
ABSTRACTAccurate body composition assessment, which includes fat mass (adipose tissue mass, FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and percent fat mass (%FM) is needed to evaluate health and treatment efficacy....
#1Liron S. McCauley (Hunter Holmes McGuire VA Medical Center)H-Index: 1
#2Mina P. Ghatas (Hunter Holmes McGuire VA Medical Center)H-Index: 1
Last. Ashraf S. Gorgey (VCU: Virginia Commonwealth University)H-Index: 23
view all 7 authors...
Abstract Purpose: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) permits quantification of visceral adipose tissue (VAT). However, DXA has not been validated against MRI in persons with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). A predictive equation was generated from the measurement of VAT by MRI, a "gold" standard to quantitate VAT, compared to that of DXA, a method with several practical advantages. Method: DXA and MRI scans were performed in 27 participants with SCI. MRI...
1 CitationsSource
#1Philipp PeloschekH-Index: 13
#1P. PeloschekH-Index: 11
Last. Franz Kainberger (Medical University of Vienna)H-Index: 47
view all 4 authors...
Computer-aided image analysis and decision support has become an indispensable part of treatment planning in orthopaedic surgery and in osteology. The first use of computers for image interpretation probably was for a musculoskeletal application and was published by Lodwick who developed a computer diagnostic model for the pattern analysis of osteolytic bone tumours in 1963 (Lodwick et al. 1963). The next important step forward was, after quantitative computed tomography, the development of dual...
#1M. Lane Moore (TTU: Texas Tech University)H-Index: 1
#2Marqui L Benavides (TTU: Texas Tech University)
Last. Grant M. Tinsley (TTU: Texas Tech University)H-Index: 7
view all 5 authors...
Summary Background and Aims Segmental estimates add specificity to body composition evaluation and could potentially have greater health and function implications than whole-body estimates alone. The aim of this study was to quantify the level of agreement between total and segmental fat mass (FM) and lean soft tissue (LST) estimates from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (SFBIA). Methods Assessments via DXA (GE® Lunar Prodigy) and SFBIA...