Aflatoxin contamination in unrecorded beers from Kenya – A health risk beyond ethanol

Published on Sep 1, 2017in Food Control4.248
· DOI :10.1016/J.FOODCONT.2017.04.006
Alex O. Okaru5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UoN: University of Nairobi),
Kennedy O. Abuga7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UoN: University of Nairobi)
+ 5 AuthorsDirk W. Lachenmeier44
Estimated H-index: 44
(TUD: Dresden University of Technology)
Abstract Samples of unrecorded opaque beers (n = 58; 40 based on maize, 5 on sorghum and 13 on other plants) and recorded wines (n = 8) in Kenya were screened for aflatoxins using a rapid ELISA technique followed by confirmation using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Six of the maize beers were obtained from Kibera slums in Nairobi County. Aflatoxin contamination was detected in six unrecorded beers (10%), but in none of the recorded wines. Remarkably, three of the aflatoxin positive samples were from the Kibera slums. The mean concentration of aflatoxins in the positive samples was 3.5 μg/L (range 1.8–6.8 μg/L), corresponding for an average consumption of 500 mL (1 standard drink) to a margin of exposure (MOE) of 36 (range: 15–58), which is considered as ‘risk’. On the other hand, the alcoholic strength of the aflatoxin positive samples had a mean of 4.3% vol (range 3.5–4.8%) corresponding to a MOE of 2.5 (range of 2.2–3.0) for the equivalent consumption volume. While aflatoxins pose a risk to the consumer, this risk is about 10 times lower than the risk of ethanol. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives sets no acceptable daily intake for aflatoxins since they are genotoxic carcinogens and instead recommends for the reduction of aflatoxin dietary exposure as an important public health goal, particularly in populations who consume high levels of any potentially aflatoxins-contaminated food. Nevertheless, ethanol still posed a considerably higher risk in the unrecorded beers examined. However, consumers should be informed about aflatoxins, as these are an involuntary and unknown risk to them. In addition, producers should be educated about measures to reduce aflatoxins in alcoholic beverages.
  • References (41)
  • Citations (7)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
20 Citations
1 Author (Bulent Kabak)
24 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
#1Tabea PflaumH-Index: 3
#2Thomas HauslerH-Index: 4
Last. Dirk W. Lachenmeier (TUD: Dresden University of Technology)H-Index: 44
view all 7 authors...
The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurre...
41 CitationsSource
#1Workneh NegatuH-Index: 1
#2Herman MusaharaH-Index: 1
1 Citations
#1Nicholas W. Turner (OU: Open University)H-Index: 13
#2Heli Bramhmbhatt (OU: Open University)H-Index: 1
Last. Sergey A. Piletsky (University of Leicester)H-Index: 60
view all 6 authors...
Mycotoxins are a problematic and toxic group of small organic molecules that are produced as secondary metabolites by several fungal species that colonise crops. They lead to contamination at both the field and postharvest stages of food production with a considerable range of foodstuffs affected, from coffee and cereals, to dried fruit and spices. With wide ranging structural diversity of mycotoxins, severe toxic effects caused by these molecules and their high chemical stability the requiremen...
100 CitationsSource
#1Samuel MutigaH-Index: 6
#2Vivian HoffmannH-Index: 11
Last. Randy J. NelsonH-Index: 87
view all 5 authors...
We conducted a survey of aflatoxin and fumonisin in maize in western Kenya. In a regional survey of aflatoxin conducted in 2009 across three agroecological zones within three administrative regions, milled maize samples were collected from 985 patrons of 26 hammer mills. Aflatoxin contamination was detected in 49% of samples and was above the regulatory (10 ppb) in 15% of the samples overall; 65% of samples from a drought-prone area were over the limit. In a detailed survey in Bungoma County, we...
31 CitationsSource
#1Dirk W. Lachenmeier (TUD: Dresden University of Technology)H-Index: 44
#2Jürgen Rehm (CAMH: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health)H-Index: 108
A comparative risk assessment of drugs including alcohol and tobacco using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach was conducted. The MOE is defined as ratio between toxicological threshold (benchmark dose) and estimated human intake. Median lethal dose values from animal experiments were used to derive the benchmark dose. The human intake was calculated for individual scenarios and population-based scenarios. The MOE was calculated using probabilistic Monte Carlo simulations. The benchmark dose v...
68 CitationsSource
#1John GilbertH-Index: 1
3 CitationsSource
#1Mary C. KiruiH-Index: 1
#2Amos AlakonyaH-Index: 9
Last. Christine BiiH-Index: 12
view all 5 authors...
Mycotoxin contamination is a common problem in developing countries, particularly in cereals, and this poses a serious health risk to its consumers. Busaa is a Kenyan traditional brew whose cereal ingredients are prone to mycotoxin contamination. This study aimed at detecting the presence and subsequently quantifying aflatoxin, fumonisin and deoxynivalenol (DON), in busaa in Bomet county, Kenya. Busaa samples were collected from homesteads involved in brewing in the north eastern part of Bomet E...
12 CitationsSource
#1Jürgen RehmH-Index: 108
#2Shalini Kailasapillai (CAMH: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health)H-Index: 1
Last. Dirk W. Lachenmeier (TUD: Dresden University of Technology)H-Index: 44
view all 8 authors...
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Unrecorded alcohol constitutes about 30% of all alcohol consumed globally. The aims of this systematic review were to determine the epidemiology (occurrence, types, prevalence) of unrecorded alcohol consumption in different countries/regions, analyze the chemical composition of unrecorded alcohol, and examine health outcomes caused by the consumption of unrecorded alcohol, based on either epidemiology or toxicology. METHODS: A systematic search for, and qualitative analysis ...
97 CitationsSource
#1Limbikani Matumba (UNIMA: University of Malawi)H-Index: 11
#2Christof Van Poucke (UGent: Ghent University)H-Index: 20
Last. Sarah De Saeger (UGent: Ghent University)H-Index: 40
view all 6 authors...
Abstract A total of 9 traditional maize based opaque beers were randomly collected from tribal (chewa) rituals and commercial village brewers from Lilongwe and Dowa districts, Malawi in August 2012 for evaluation of mycotoxins using a multi-mycotoxin method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Samples were analyzed for aflatoxins B1 (AFB1), AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, fumonisin B1 (FB1), FB2, FB3, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetylde...
33 CitationsSource
#1Sonia Marín (University of Lleida)H-Index: 49
#2Antonio J. Ramos (University of Lleida)H-Index: 49
Last. Vicent Sanchis (University of Lleida)H-Index: 8
view all 4 authors...
Mycotoxins are abiotic hazards produced by certain fungi that can grow on a variety of crops. Consequently, their prevalence in plant raw materials may be relatively high. The concentration of mycotoxins in finished products is usually lower than in raw materials. In this review, occurrence and toxicology of the main mycotoxins are summarised. Furthermore, methodological approaches for exposure assessment are described. Existing exposure assessments, both through contamination and consumption da...
578 CitationsSource
Cited By7
#2Chiara RossiH-Index: 6
Last. Annalisa SerioH-Index: 17
view all 5 authors...
Maize and its derived fermented products, as with other cereals, are fundamental for human nutrition in many countries of the world. Mixed cultures, principally constituted by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts, are responsible for maize fermentation, thus increasing its nutritional value and extending the products’ shelf-life. Other microorganisms involved, such as molds, acetic acid bacteria, and Bacillus spp. can contribute to the final product characteristics. This review gives an overvie...
2 CitationsSource
#1Enric Pellicer-Castell (University of Valencia)H-Index: 3
#2Carolina Belenguer-Sapiña (University of Valencia)H-Index: 5
Last. A. R. Mauri-Aucejo (University of Valencia)H-Index: 9
view all 7 authors...
A solid-phase extraction procedure has been developed by using a sorbent derived from UVM-7 mesoporous silica. The sorbent was applied to the extraction of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 from tea samples followed by HPLC with mass spectrometric detection. The sorbent was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. UVM-7 is found to be the best solid phase. The amount of solid-phase, type and volume of eluent, ...
3 CitationsSource
#1Stellah Byakika (MUK: Makerere University)H-Index: 3
#2Ivan Muzira Mukisa (MUK: Makerere University)H-Index: 8
Last. Charles Muyanja (MUK: Makerere University)H-Index: 13
view all 6 authors...
Background Aflatoxin contamination in traditionally fermented cereal-based beverages is a serious food safety challenge considering that commercialization of these products is rising. The challenge is aggravated by the fact that aflatoxin elimination from the food chain is almost impossible. This paper focuses on Obushera, a popular traditional spontaneously fermented sorghum – millet beverage from Uganda.
1 CitationsSource
#1X. LinH-Index: 1
#2X. HuH-Index: 1
Last. M. ZhangH-Index: 1
view all 5 authors...
Bioavailability is not a constant percentage of a contaminant in food but is affected by many factors, such as food type, treatment, diet structure and interaction with other compounds. To evaluate these influences, we measured the bioaccessibility of aflatoxins from nine naturally polluted maize samples, collected from southeast China, using an in vitro digestion model, and analysed the intestinal transport of aflatoxins by a Caco-2 cell model. Steam cooking treatment could reduce the aflatoxin...
2 CitationsSource
#1Rahma Mkuu (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 4
#2Adam E. Barry (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 24
Last. Fredrick Muyia Nafukho (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 16
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Alcohol misuse contributes substantially to the global morbidity and mortality burden. Unrecorded alcohol, alcohol that is purchased by means which precludes regulation, represents a substantial proportion of the alcohol consumed in East Africa. In Kenya, homebrew also known as traditional brew, has been linked to several fatalities and hospitalizations. Previously banned, the Kenyan government recently legalized homebrew in an effort to regulate and reduce its harm. Despite legalizatio...
2 CitationsSource
#1Rahma Mkuu (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 4
#2Adam E. Barry (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 24
Last. Ann O. Amuta (Texas Woman's University)H-Index: 7
view all 4 authors...
Background Due to media reports of several deaths, consumption of unrecorded alcohol (i.e., alcohol brewed at home) has emerged as a public health threat in developing countries like Kenya. Empirical data on this issue, however, is scarce. This investigation compared demographic characteristics of Kenyans who drank recorded (regulated) and unrecorded alcohol.
#1Jürgen RehmH-Index: 108
#2Gerhard GmelH-Index: 63
Last. Paul A. Shuper (U of T: University of Toronto)H-Index: 10
view all 11 authors...
1 CitationsSource