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Strategic and Unpressured Within-Task Planning and Their Associations with Working Memory.

Published on Mar 1, 2018in Language Teaching Research 2.32
· DOI :10.1177/1362168816684367
Shaofeng Li16
Estimated H-index: 16
(University of Auckland),
Mengxia Fu (University of Auckland)
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Abstract
This study investigated the comparative effects of strategic and unpressured within-task planning on second language (L2) Chinese oral production and the role of working memory in mediating the effects of the two types of planning. Twenty-nine L2 Chinese learners at a large New Zealand university performed a narrative task after watching a 6-minute silent movie, followed by an operation span test gauging the learners’ working memory capacity. The results revealed that (1) strategic planning enhanced fluency and unpressured within-task planning led to greater accuracy and syntactic complexity, (2) strategic planning facilitated the production of a syntactically transparent structure, while unpressured within-task planning showed an advantage for opaque, complex structures, and (3) working memory was drawn upon in unpressured within-task planning, but barely so in strategic planning. The data show that strategic planning benefits the Conceptualizer while unpressured within-task planning favors the Formulato...
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References35
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Published on Apr 15, 2014
Peter Skehan19
Estimated H-index: 19
1. Series editors' preface to Volume 5 2. Preface 3. Chapter 1. The context for researching a processing perspective on task performance (by Skehan, Peter) 4. Chapter 2. On-line time pressure manipulations: L2 speaking performance under five types of planning and repetition conditions (by Wang, Zhan) 5. Chapter 3. Task readiness: Theoretical framework and empirical evidence from topic familiarity, strategic planning, and proficiency levels (by Gavin, Bui Hiu Yuet) 6. Chapter 4. Self-reported pla...
Mohammad Javad Ahmadian8
Estimated H-index: 8
,
Mansoor Tavakoli9
Estimated H-index: 9
Abstract: This study used quantitative analyses complemented by the retrospective data obtained through a stimulated recall procedure to address three interrelated issues: (a) whether second language learners use online planning opportunities to carefully plan their speech to enhance the quality of the language they produce, (b) what kinds of self-repair behaviour the pressured and careful online planning conditions are likely to induce speakers to make, and (c) the way careful online planning a...
Published on Feb 1, 2014in Applied Linguistics 3.04
Andrea Révész13
Estimated H-index: 13
(IOE: Institute of Education)
This commentary discusses some methodological innovations and challenges in testing two cognitive models of task-based instruction and learning: Robinson’s Cognition Hypothesis (2001) and Skehan’s Trade-Off Hypothesis (1998). My focus, in view of these models’ key constructs, is the extent to which current methodological approaches are adequate to address the theoretical questions posed. I argue that there is a need for more extensive use of methods that can provide independent evidence of const...
Published on Jul 1, 2013in Applied Linguistics 3.04
Yucel Yilmaz8
Estimated H-index: 8
(IU: Indiana University Bloomington)
The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of two cognitive factors (i.e. working memory capacity [WMC] and language analytic ability [LAA]) in the extent to which L2 learners benefit from two different types of feedback (i.e. explicit correction and recasts). Forty-eight adult native speakers of English, who had no previous exposure to the target language (i.e. Turkish), were randomly assigned into explicit correction, recast, and control (no feedback) groups. Learners performed two t...
Published on Jan 14, 2013in the CALICO Journal
J. Scott Payne2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Paul Whitney23
Estimated H-index: 23
A naturalistic experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that synchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) can indirectly improve L2 oral proficiency by developing the same cognitive mechanisms underlying spontaneous conversational speech. The theoretical framework guiding this inquiry consists of Levelt’s (1989) model of language production augmented by concepts from Working Memory theory. The findings show a significant difference between the experimental and control groups oral pro...
Published on Sep 1, 2012in Studies in Second Language Acquisition 2.60
Jaemyung Goo5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Gwangju National University of Education)
Published on Jan 1, 2012in Language Teaching Research 2.32
Mohammad Javad Ahmadian8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UI: University of Isfahan)
The purpose of the study reported in this article was twofold: First, to see whether guided careful online planning assists intermediate learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in accurate oral production of English articles (an/a and the); and, second, to see whether guided careful online planning has any effects on global complexity and fluency of intermediate EFL learners’ oral language performance. Forty-five intermediate EFL learners were required to perform an oral narrative task u...
Published on Jan 1, 2011in Language Teaching Research 2.32
Mohammad Javad Ahmadian8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UI: University of Isfahan),
Mansoor Tavakoli9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UI: University of Isfahan)
This article reports on a study that was primarily aimed at investigating the effects of simultaneous use of careful online planning and task repetition on accuracy, complexity, and fluency in the oral production of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). The effects of four planning and task repetition conditions (i.e. careful online planning without task repetition, pressured online planning with task repetition, careful online planning with task repetition, and pressured online plann...
Published on Jan 1, 2011
Takako Nakakubo1
Estimated H-index: 1
For over two decades, studies on task planning and its role in second language learners' oral performance have shown that the opportunity to plan for a task generally improves learners' speech (Ellis, 2005). It has been hypothesized that the opportunity to plan for a task reduces cognitive load during language processing, thus allowing learners to attend to various aspects of language, and that this enhanced attention, in turn, results in more successful task performance. However, one limitation...
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