Match!

Walnuts Consumed by Healthy Adults Provide Less Available Energy than Predicted by the Atwater Factors

Published on Jan 1, 2016in Journal of Nutrition4.416
· DOI :10.3945/jn.115.217372
David Baer40
Estimated H-index: 40
(ARS: Agricultural Research Service),
Sarah K Gebauer7
Estimated H-index: 7
(ARS: Agricultural Research Service),
Janet A. Novotny24
Estimated H-index: 24
(ARS: Agricultural Research Service)
Sources
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that the metabolizable energy (ME) content (energy available to the body) of certain nuts is less than predicted by the Atwater factors. However, very few nuts have been investigated to date, and no information is available regarding the ME of walnuts.A study was conducted to determine the ME of walnuts when consumed as part of a typical American diet.Healthy adults (n = 18; mean age = 53.1 y; body mass index = 28.8 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover study with 2 treatment periods (3 wk each). The study was a fully controlled dietary feeding intervention in which the same base diet was consumed during each treatment period; the base diet was unsupplemented during one feeding period and supplemented with 42 g walnuts/d during the other feeding period. Base diet foods were reduced in equal proportions during the walnut period to achieve isocaloric food intake during the 2 periods. After a 9 d diet acclimation period, subjects collected all urine and feces for ∼1 wk (as marked by a Brilliant Blue fecal collection marker) for analysis of energy content. Administered diets, walnuts, and fecal and urine samples were subjected to bomb calorimetry, and the resulting data were used to calculate the ME of the walnuts.One 28-g serving of walnuts contained 146 kcal (5.22 kcal/g), 39 kcal/serving less than the calculated value of 185 kcal/serving (6.61 kcal/g). The ME of the walnuts was 21% less than that predicted by the Atwater factors (P < 0.0001).Consistent with other tree nuts, Atwater factors overestimate the metabolizable energy value of walnuts. These results could help explain the observations that consumers of nuts do not gain excessive weight and could improve the accuracy of food labeling. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01832909.
Figures & Tables
  • References (36)
  • Citations (31)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
96 Citations
49 Citations
2015
3 Authors (David Baer, ..., Janet A. Novotny)
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
References36
Newest
#1Simone Holligan (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 5
#2Sheila G. West (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 39
Last. Penny M. Kris-Etherton (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 89
view all 5 authors...
A randomised, cross-over, controlled-feeding study was conducted to evaluate the cholesterol-lowering effects of diets containing pistachios as a strategy for increasing total fat (TF) levels v. a control (step I) lower-fat diet. Ex vivo techniques were used to evaluate the effects of pistachio consumption on lipoprotein subclasses and functionality in individuals (n 28) with elevated LDL levels ( ≥ 2·86 mmol/l). The following test diets (SFA approximately 8 % and cholesterol
20 CitationsSource
Ten different nut kinds (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) were evaluated for their total oil and phytosterol content as well as their fatty acid composition. The total oil content was the predominant component; mean values oscillated between 45.2 % (cashews) and 74.7 % (macadamias). Mean total phytosterol content ranged from 71.7 mg (Brazil nuts) to 271.9 mg (pistachios) per 100 g oil. s-sitosterol was the major sterol (me...
18 CitationsSource
#1Sylvia Yada (U of G: University of Guelph)H-Index: 7
#2Guangwei HuangH-Index: 5
Last. Karen G. LapsleyH-Index: 3
view all 3 authors...
Abstract The natural variability in nutrient composition among and within commercially important California almond varieties was investigated in a multi-year study. Seven major almond varieties (Butte, Carmel, Fritz, Mission, Monterey, Nonpareil and Sonora) were collected over three separate harvests and from various orchards in the north, central and south growing regions in California. Comprehensive nutritional analysis (20 macronutrients and micronutrients, 3 phytosterols) of 39 almond sample...
28 CitationsSource
#1Janet A. Novotny (ARS: Agricultural Research Service)H-Index: 24
#2Sarah K Gebauer (ARS: Agricultural Research Service)H-Index: 7
Last. David Baer (ARS: Agricultural Research Service)H-Index: 40
view all 3 authors...
Background: The energy content of foods is primarily determined by the Atwater factors, which may not be accurate for certain food groups. Nuts are a food group for which substantial evidence suggests that the Atwater factors may be poorly predictive. Objective: A study was conducted to determine the energy value of almonds in the human diet and to compare the measured energy value with the value calculated from the Atwater factors. Design: Eighteen healthy adults consumed a controlled diet or a...
96 CitationsSource
The pistachio is a nutrient-dense nut with a heart-healthy fatty-acid profile as well as protein, dietary fiber, potassium, magnesium, vitamin K, γ-tocopherol, and a number of phytochemicals. The pistachio's unique green and purple kernel color is a result of its lutein and anthocyanin content. Among nuts, pistachios contain the highest levels of potassium, γ-tocopherol, vitamin K, phytosterols, and xanthophyll carotenoids. Five published randomized cardiovascular trials have shown that pistachi...
55 CitationsSource
#1David Baer (USDA: United States Department of Agriculture)H-Index: 40
#2Sarah K. Gebauer (USDA: United States Department of Agriculture)H-Index: 5
Last. Janet A. Novotny (USDA: United States Department of Agriculture)H-Index: 24
view all 3 authors...
Previous studies have suggested that lipid from nuts is more poorly absorbed than that from other food sources. If lipid from nuts is poorly absorbed, then the metabolisable energy contained in the nuts is less than that predicted by the Atwater general factors. A crossover feeding study was conducted in which sixteen volunteers consumed pistachios for 3 weeks as part of a controlled diet. Pistachio doses were 0, 42 and 84 g/d. Urine and faecal samples were collected, and urine, faeces and diet ...
49 CitationsSource
#1Bradley W. Bolling (UConn: University of Connecticut)H-Index: 23
#2C.-Y. Oliver Chen (Tufts University)H-Index: 23
Last. Jeffrey B. Blumberg (Tufts University)H-Index: 68
view all 4 authors...
Tree nuts contain an array of phytochemicals including carotenoids, phenolic acids, phytosterols and polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids, proanthocyanidins (PAC) and stilbenes, all of which are included in nutrient databases, as well as phytates, sphingolipids, alkylphenols and lignans, which are not. The phytochemical content of tree nuts can vary considerably by nut type, genotype, pre- and post-harvest conditions, as well as storage conditions. Genotype affects phenolic acids, flavonoid...
137 CitationsSource
Uncharacteristic of most whole foods, the major component of tree nuts is lipid; surprisingly, information on the lipid constituents in tree nuts has been sporadic and, for the most part, not well reported. Most published papers focus on only one nut type, or those that report a cultivar lack a quality control program, thus making data comparisons difficult. The present study was designed to quantify the healthful lipid constituents of 10 different types of commercially important tree nuts (i.e....
43 CitationsSource
#1Dariush Mozaffarian (Harvard University)H-Index: 120
#2Tao Hao (Harvard University)H-Index: 2
Last. Frank B. Hu (Harvard University)H-Index: 205
view all 5 authors...
BackgroundSpecific dietary and other lifestyle behaviors may affect the success of the straightforward-sounding strategy “eat less and exercise more” for preventing long-term weight gain. MethodsWe performed prospective investigations involving three separate cohorts that included 120,877 U.S. women and men who were free of chronic diseases and not obese at baseline, with follow-up periods from 1986 to 2006, 1991 to 2003, and 1986 to 2006. The relationships between changes in lifestyle factors a...
1,341 CitationsSource
#1Wieke Altorf-van der Kuil (WUR: Wageningen University and Research Centre)H-Index: 5
#2Mariëlle F. Engberink (WUR: Wageningen University and Research Centre)H-Index: 15
Last. Johanna M. Geleijnse (WUR: Wageningen University and Research Centre)H-Index: 73
view all 8 authors...
Background: Elevated blood pressure (BP), which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is highly prevalent worldwide. Recently, interest has grown in the role of dietary protein in human BP. We performed a systematic review of all published scientific literature on dietary protein, including protein from various sources, in relation to human BP. Methodology/Principal Findings: We performed a MEDLINE search and a manual search to identify English language studies on the association be...
110 CitationsSource
Cited By31
Newest
#1Simona Bo (UNITO: University of Turin)H-Index: 10
#2Maurizio FaddaH-Index: 16
Last. Nicoletta Pellegrini (University of Udine)H-Index: 1
view all 6 authors...
The mass media has increasingly frequently suggested to the general population that specific foods or nutritional schemes are able to affect both human metabolism and energy expenditure, thus facilitating weight loss. This critical review is aimed at assessing available evidence on the roles of nutrients, food and dietary regimens in energy intake and energy expenditure. We queried the National Library of Medicine, the Cochrane Library, Excerpta Medica dataBASEand the Cumulative Index to Nursing...
2 CitationsSource
#1Hannah Diane Holscher (UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)H-Index: 13
Source
#1Alyssa M. Tindall (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 2
#2Christopher McLimans (Juniata College)H-Index: 3
Last. Regina Lamendella (Juniata College)H-Index: 21
view all 5 authors...
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the favorable effects of walnuts on the gut microbiota are attributable to the fatty acids, including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), and/or the bioactive compounds and fiber. OBJECTIVE: This study examined between-diet gut bacterial differences in individuals at increased cardiovascular risk following diets that replace SFAs with walnuts or vegetable oils. METHODS: Forty-two adults at cardiovascular risk were included in a randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding ...
2 CitationsSource
#1Cassandra J. Nikodijevic (UOW: University of Wollongong)
#2Yasmine Probst (Illawarra Health & Medical Research Institute)H-Index: 12
Last. Elizabeth P. Neale (Illawarra Health & Medical Research Institute)H-Index: 11
view all 5 authors...
OBJECTIVE: Nut consumption is associated with a range of health benefits. The current study aimed to examine nut consumption in the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS) and to investigate associations between nut intake, nutrient intake and anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the 2011-2012 NNPAS. Usual consumption of nuts in the 2011-2012 NNPAS was determined, and nut consumption was compared with population recommendations o...
1 CitationsSource
#1S. Coe (British Nutrition Foundation)H-Index: 3
Source
#2Richard D. Mattes (Purdue University)H-Index: 58
view all 2 authors...
The bioaccessibility of fat has implications for satiety and postprandial lipidaemia. The prevailing view holds that the integrity of plant cell wall structure is the primary determinant of energy and nutrient extraction from plant cells as they pass through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, comparisons across nuts (walnuts, almonds and pistachios) with varying physical properties do not support this view. In the present study, masticated samples of three nuts from healthy adults were ex...
Source
Adipose tissue is a complex structure responsible for fat storage and releasing polypeptides (adipokines) and metabolites, with systemic actions including body weight balance, appetite regulation, glucose homeostasis, and blood pressure control. Signals sent from different tissues are generated and integrated in adipose tissue; thus, there is a close connection between this endocrine organ and different organs and systems such as the gut and the cardiovascular system. It is known that functional...
2 CitationsSource
Last. Tamara PopovićH-Index: 11
view all 7 authors...
People living in non-Mediterranean West Balkan countries have diets with a low n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content. Walnuts, a traditional Serbian food, could be an excellent source of n-3 PUFA. The first sub-study evaluated the fatty acid and mineral content of Serbian walnuts, demonstrating that walnuts had the high content of linolenic acid (C18:3, n-3 ALA). The second sub-study assessed the consumption of walnuts (Juglans regia L.) and total n-3-fatty acid intake in apparently heal...
1 CitationsSource
#1Marc FantinoH-Index: 1
#2Cécile BichardH-Index: 1
Last. Frédéric MistrettaH-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Dietary guidelines around the world recommend the regular intake of nuts because of their nutrient contribution to the diet and reported health benefits. However, consumers are often reluctant to include nuts in their diet due to the high caloric density of nuts. In a 12-week randomized, controlled intervention, we investigated how adding a pistachio portion to the daily diet affects body weight and composition, satiety, energy and nutrient intake. Sixty healthy pre-menopausal women who...
2 CitationsSource
#1Jananee Muralidharan (ISCIII: Carlos III Health Institute)
#2Serena Galiè (ISCIII: Carlos III Health Institute)
Last. Jordi Salas-Salvadó (ISCIII: Carlos III Health Institute)H-Index: 68
view all 5 authors...
Diet is advocated as a key factor influencing gut microbiota. Several studies have focused on the effect of different carbohydrates, mainly fiber, on gut microbiota. However, what remains to be elucidated is the impact of a key component of diet that is widely debated upon: dietary fats. This review highlights the importance to understand the source, quality and type of fats that could differentially modify the intestinal microbiome. Fats from plant-based sources such as nuts, or vegetable oils ...
Source