A Social-Cognitive Approach to Motivation and Personality.

Published on Jan 1, 1988in Psychological Review6.27
· DOI :10.1037/0033-295X.95.2.256
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
Ellen L. Leggett2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Harvard University)
Past work has documented and described major patterns of adaptive and maladaptive behavior: the mastery-oriented and the helpless patterns. In this article, we present a research-based model that accounts for these patterns in terms of underlying psychological processes. The model specifies how individuals' implicit theories orient them toward particular goals and how these goals set up the different patterns. Indeed, we show how each feature (cognitive, affective, and behavioral) of the adaptive and maladaptive patterns can be seen to follow directly from different goals. We then examine the generality of the model and use it to illuminate phenomena in a wide variety of domains. Finally, we place the model in its broadest context and examine its implications for our understanding of motivational and personality processes. The task for investigators of motivation and personality is to identify major patterns of behavior and link them to underlying psychological processes. In this article we (a) describe a research-based model that accounts for major patterns of behavior, (b) examine the generality of this model—its utility for understanding domains beyond the ones in which it was originally developed, and (c) explore the broader implications of the model for motivational and personality processes.
  • References (89)
  • Citations (5481)
#1John S. Carroll (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 37
#2William T. Perkowitz (LUC: Loyola University Chicago)H-Index: 2
Last.Frances M. Weaver (LUC: Loyola University Chicago)H-Index: 34
view all 4 authors...
#1Carroll E. IzardH-Index: 1
#2Jerome KaganH-Index: 1
Last.R. B. ZajoncH-Index: 17
view all 3 authors...
Cited By5481
#1Carl P. Maertz (University of Louisville)
#2Scott L. Boya (UAB: University of Alabama at Birmingham)
Last.Patrick W. Maloney (SLU: Saint Louis University)H-Index: 4
view all 3 authors...
#1Lyndsey Middleton (Edinburgh Napier University)
#2Hazel Hall (Edinburgh Napier University)H-Index: 14
Last.Robert Raeside (Edinburgh Napier University)H-Index: 14
view all 3 authors...
#1Nancy Berenice Ortiz Alvarado (EGADE Business School)
#2Marisol Rodríguez Ontiveros (EGADE Business School)
Last.Edgardo Arturo Ayala Gaytán (Tec: Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education)H-Index: 3
view all 3 authors...
#1Eric Middleton (CGU: Claremont Graduate University)H-Index: 1
#2Dayna O. Walker (SFSU: San Francisco State University)
Last.Rebecca J. Reichard (CGU: Claremont Graduate University)H-Index: 17
view all 3 authors...
View next paperSelf-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control