Effects of Externally Mediated Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation.

Published on Jan 1, 1971in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 5.73
· DOI :10.1037/h0030644
Edward L. Deci89
Estimated H-index: 89
(University of Rochester)
Two laboratory experiments and one field experiment were conducted to investigate the effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation to perform an activity. In each experiment, subjects were performing an activity during three different periods, and observations relevant to their motivation were made. External rewards were given to the experimental subjects during the second period only, while the control subjects received no rewards. Of interest was the difference in the experimental group's motivation between Period 1 and Period 3, relative to the difference in the control's. The results indicate that (a) when money was used as an external reward, intrinsic motivation tended to decrease, whereas (b) when verbal reinforcement and positive feedback were used, intrinsic motivation tended to increase. Discrepant findings in the literature were reconciled using a new theoretical framework which employs a cognitive approach and concentrates on the nature of the external reward. If a boy who enjoys mowing lawns begins to receive payment for the task, what will happen to his intrinsic motivation for performing this activity? Or, if he enjoys gardening and his parents seek to encourage this by providing verbal reinforcement and affection when he gardens, what will happen to his intrinsic motivation for gardening? These are examples of the classical problem concerning the effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation. One is said to be intrinsically motivated to perform an activity when he receives no apparent rewards except the activity itself. This intrinsic motivation might be either innate or learned (White, 1959). It is not the purpose of this study to deal with the specific nature of, or development of, intrinsic motivation, but rather, it assumes that at a given time a person can be intrinsically motivated to do an activity, and it then asks: What are the effects of external rewards on this motivation ? In the two examples of the boy, he is performing the activity for no apparent rewards 1 These studies were conducted at Carnegie-Mell on University. The author wishes to thank Victor H. Vroom and Daryl J. Bern for helpful suggestions about the research and about earlier drafts of the manuscript.
  • References (20)
  • Citations (2386)
Published on Jan 1, 1964
John W. Atkinson14
Estimated H-index: 14
2,089 Citations
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Richard DeCharms1
Estimated H-index: 1
1,174 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 1957
Leon Festinger37
Estimated H-index: 37
Cognitive dissonance theory links actions and attitudes. It holds that dissonance is experienced whenever one cognition that a person holds follows from the opposite of at least one other cognition that the person holds. The magnitude of dissonance is directly proportional to the number of discrepant cognitions and inversely proportional to the number of consonant cognitions that a person has. The relative weight of any discrepant or consonant element is a function of its Importance.
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Published on Jan 1, 1962in American Psychologist 4.86
Martin T. Orne38
Estimated H-index: 38
(Harvard University)
It is to the highest degree probable that the subjectl's] . . . general attitude of mind is that of ready complacency and cheerful willingness to assist the investigator in every possible way by reporting to him those very things which he is most eager to find, and that the very questions of the experimenter . . . suggest the shade of reply expected . . . . Indeed . . . it seems too often as if the subject were now regarded as a stupid automaton . . . . A. H. PIERCE, 1908 :!
2,774 Citations Source Cite
Robert M. Yerkes20
Estimated H-index: 20
(Harvard University),
John D. Dodson1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Harvard University)
In connection with a study of various aspects of the modifiability of behavior in the dancing mouse a need for definite knowledge concerning the relation of strength of stimulus to rate of learning arose. It was for the purpose of obtaining this knowledge that we planned and executed the experiments which are now to be described. Our work was greatly facilitated by the advice and assistance of Doctor E. G. MARTIN, Professor G. W. PIERCE, and Professor A. E. KENNELLY, and we desire to express her...
3,577 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 1965in Journal of Personality 3.48
Philip G. Zimbardo9
Estimated H-index: 9
(New York University),
Matisyohu Weisenberg2
Estimated H-index: 2
(New York University)
+ 1 AuthorsBurton Levy1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Yale University)
One of the most widely held generalizabons m social psychology IS that the efiEectiveness of a persuasive communication IS mcreased if its source is "credible " The early research by Hovland and Weiss (1951) and by Kelman and Hovland (1953) which gave substance to this conclusion has recently been extended to demonsbate the efficacy of credible communicators even when the amount of change advocated is extreme (Aronson, Tumer, & Carlsmith, 1963) Credibility has been defined traditionally m terms ...
58 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 1957in Personnel Psychology 5.52
Ian C. Ross5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Michigan),
Alvin Zander19
Estimated H-index: 19
(University of Michigan)
Summary In this study we establish the fact that the degree of satisfaction of certain personal needs supplied by a person's place of employment has a significant direct relationship to his continuing to work for that company. These personal needs are for recognition, for autonomy, for a feeling of doing work that is important, and for evaluation by fair standards. In addition, knowing important people in the organization is related to continued employment. There are some indications that anxiet...
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Published on Jan 1, 1967in Journal of Experimental Psychology
Charles N. Uhl7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of Utah),
A. Grant Young1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Utah)
18 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1950in Journal of Experimental Psychology
Harry F. Harlow49
Estimated H-index: 49
(University of Wisconsin-Madison),
Margaret K. Harlow7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of Wisconsin-Madison),
Donald R. Meyer21
Estimated H-index: 21
(University of Wisconsin-Madison)
207 Citations Source Cite
Elliot Aronson30
Estimated H-index: 30
(Stanford University),
Judson Mills3
Estimated H-index: 3
"An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that persons who undergo an unpleasant initiation to become members of a group increase their liking for the group; that is, they find the group more attractive than do persons who become members without going through a severe initiation. This hypothesis was derived from Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance." 3 conditions were employed: reading of "embarrassing material" before a group, mildly embarrassing material to be read, no reading....
683 Citations Source Cite
Cited By2386
Published on Jan 1, 2010 in International Conference on Information Systems
Kunal Mohan5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Duisburg-Essen),
Frederik Ahlemann15
Estimated H-index: 15
(European Business School London)
Despite the overwhelming advantages of using an IT project management methodology, organizations are rarely able to motivate their staff to use them. While empirical research states that the usefulness of a methodology is the single most important determinant of its acceptance and use by actual users, studies have not examined which aspects of usefulness are more important for which type of people in which situations. Our study is a step toward filling the gap in methodology evaluation, developm...
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Published on Jan 1, 2014 in International Conference on Information Systems
Johann Kranz10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of Göttingen),
Felix J. Haeussinger1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Göttingen)
Information systems security (ISS) is an increasingly critical issue for companies worldwide. In 2013 cybercrime has caused losses worth US $113 billion affecting 378m victims (Norton Symantec Cybercrime Report 2013). Besides criminal attacks and system malfunctions, human error is the major reason for information security incidents. Hence, refining our understanding how employees’ behavior regarding information security can be explained and influenced is a top priority in academia and business ...
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Published on Jun 1, 2018in Regulation & Governance 2.73
Constantine Boussalis5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Trinity College, Dublin),
Yuval Feldman10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Bar-Ilan University),
Henry E. Smith16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Harvard University)
Legal directives, whether laws, regulations, or contractual provisions, can be written along a spectrum of specificity, about which behavioral and legal scholarship present conflicting views. We hypothesized that the combination of specificity and monitoring promotes compliance but harms performance and trust, whereas the combination of specificity and good faith enhances both the informative goal-setting aspects of specificity and people’s sense of commitment. To test these hypotheses, we used ...
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Published on Jan 1, 1983in The Review of Higher Education 1.30
Barry M. Staw1
Estimated H-index: 1
This paper begins with a “short tour” of prevailing motivation theories from organizational behavior. Guidelines from current theories are pushed to their limit, however, when outcome curves are examined in their extremities. Traditional reward systems are shown to have many practical limitations. In addition, because they are derived from self-interest models of motivation, relevance to educational roles is incomplete. To explain organizationally-oriented rather than individualistic behavior, a...
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Published on Jan 1, 2011
Opal Donaldson3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Technology, Jamaica),
Evan W. Duggan7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of the West Indies)
The impact of social networking has become a focal point for Information Systems researchers; however, its potential benefits and impact have not been fully explored. Membership in social networks has been increasing steadily within the last decade but at the same time some members have abandon their accounts or use them minimally. To understand the differences in usage among members the adoption process needs to be evaluated. Existing adoption models evaluated technology adoption from a utilita...
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Published on Dec 14, 2014 in International Conference on Information Systems
Kristina Flüchter2
Estimated H-index: 2
(ETH Zurich),
Felix Wortmann11
Estimated H-index: 11
(University of St. Gallen)
The shaping of sustainable future transportation systems is posing serious challenges for policy-makers today and massive investments are made into infrastructures and travel demand management. Meanwhile, Green IS research is addressing the potential of information systems as high-scale, low-cost means of influencing human actions and has successfully been applying psychological theories. However, research is still in its early stages and while positive short-term effects are relatively well und...
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Deborah Biggers1
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Published on Jan 1, 1996in Environment and Behavior 3.55
John Th⊘gersen42
Estimated H-index: 42
(Aarhus University)
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Published on Dec 1, 1999in Journal of Consumer Policy
Bruno S. Frey80
Estimated H-index: 80
(University of Zurich)
The "Moralist" camp takes environmental morale to be essential in order to save nature. The "Rationalist" camp, mainly represented by economists, takes market-based instruments solely relying on extrinsic motivation to be both necessary and sufficient for a successful environmental policy. Recently, the moralists have learned to appreciate economists' incentive instruments, and rationalists have learned that environmental morale is required to find political support for the introduction of their...
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Published on Jan 1, 2013 in Americas Conference on Information Systems
James A. Rodger9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Indiana University of Pennsylvania),
Stephen P. Gonzalez3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Utah)
Data collected from 338 health care workers were used to test a proposed model that inspiration, memory, and inspirational memory affect end user intention to adopt a digitized patient record software application. Structural equation modeling showed that, as expected, inspiration from managers and trainers affected the individual behavior of the end users. Inspiration had an interactive impact through memory on collective acceptance of the technology, thereby affecting subsequent evaluations and...