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Effects of Externally Mediated Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation.

Published on Jan 1, 1971in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 5.92
· DOI :10.1037/h0030644
Edward L. Deci105
Estimated H-index: 105
(UR: University of Rochester)
Two laboratory experiments and one field experiment were conducted to investigate the effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation to perform an activity. In each experiment, subjects were performing an activity during three different periods, and observations relevant to their motivation were made. External rewards were given to the experimental subjects during the second period only, while the control subjects received no rewards. Of interest was the difference in the experimental group's motivation between Period 1 and Period 3, relative to the difference in the control's. The results indicate that (a) when money was used as an external reward, intrinsic motivation tended to decrease, whereas (b) when verbal reinforcement and positive feedback were used, intrinsic motivation tended to increase. Discrepant findings in the literature were reconciled using a new theoretical framework which employs a cognitive approach and concentrates on the nature of the external reward. If a boy who enjoys mowing lawns begins to receive payment for the task, what will happen to his intrinsic motivation for performing this activity? Or, if he enjoys gardening and his parents seek to encourage this by providing verbal reinforcement and affection when he gardens, what will happen to his intrinsic motivation for gardening? These are examples of the classical problem concerning the effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation. One is said to be intrinsically motivated to perform an activity when he receives no apparent rewards except the activity itself. This intrinsic motivation might be either innate or learned (White, 1959). It is not the purpose of this study to deal with the specific nature of, or development of, intrinsic motivation, but rather, it assumes that at a given time a person can be intrinsically motivated to do an activity, and it then asks: What are the effects of external rewards on this motivation ? In the two examples of the boy, he is performing the activity for no apparent rewards 1 These studies were conducted at Carnegie-Mell on University. The author wishes to thank Victor H. Vroom and Daryl J. Bern for helpful suggestions about the research and about earlier drafts of the manuscript.
  • References (18)
  • Citations (2411)
Karl E. Weick63
Estimated H-index: 63
(UMN: University of Minnesota)
28 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1967in Journal of Experimental Psychology
Charles N. Uhl7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UofU: University of Utah),
A. Grant Young1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UofU: University of Utah)
18 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1966
Werner K. Honig1
Estimated H-index: 1
840 Citations
Published on Jun 1, 1965in Journal of Personality 3.08
Philip G. Zimbardo9
Estimated H-index: 9
(NYU: New York University),
Matisyohu Weisenberg2
Estimated H-index: 2
(NYU: New York University)
+ 1 AuthorsBurton Levy1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Yale University)
One of the most widely held generalizabons m social psychology IS that the efiEectiveness of a persuasive communication IS mcreased if its source is "credible " The early research by Hovland and Weiss (1951) and by Kelman and Hovland (1953) which gave substance to this conclusion has recently been extended to demonsbate the efficacy of credible communicators even when the amount of change advocated is extreme (Aronson, Tumer, & Carlsmith, 1963) Credibility has been defined traditionally m terms ...
58 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1964in Journal of Abnormal Psychology 5.52
Weick Ke1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Purdue University)
88 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1964
John W. Atkinson21
Estimated H-index: 21
2,103 Citations
Elliot Aronson40
Estimated H-index: 40
(Stanford University),
Judson Mills3
Estimated H-index: 3
"An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that persons who undergo an unpleasant initiation to become members of a group increase their liking for the group; that is, they find the group more attractive than do persons who become members without going through a severe initiation. This hypothesis was derived from Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance." 3 conditions were employed: reading of "embarrassing material" before a group, mildly embarrassing material to be read, no reading....
688 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1957
Charles B. Ferster1
Estimated H-index: 1
(IU: Indiana University),
B. F. Skinner69
Estimated H-index: 69
(Harvard University)
2,566 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 1957
Leon Festinger43
Estimated H-index: 43
Cognitive dissonance theory links actions and attitudes. It holds that dissonance is experienced whenever one cognition that a person holds follows from the opposite of at least one other cognition that the person holds. The magnitude of dissonance is directly proportional to the number of discrepant cognitions and inversely proportional to the number of consonant cognitions that a person has. The relative weight of any discrepant or consonant element is a function of its Importance.
16.2k Citations
Published on Jan 1, 1954
Fred Simmons Keller1
Estimated H-index: 1
32 Citations
Cited By2411
Published on Jan 1, 2020
Poul Erik Mouritzen4
Estimated H-index: 4
(AU: Aarhus University),
Niels Opstrup3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Southern Denmark)
What motivates researchers at Danish universities, to what extent does their current work situation fulfil their expectations of the ideal job and has this has changed since the BRI was introduced? The starting point in this examination is a discussion of the normative structure of science and what factors can be expected to motivate university researchers. There is no evidence that the traditional ‘ethos of science’ as codified in the CUDOS norms has been endangered by the BRI. In general, intr...
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Published on Jan 1, 2020
Poul Erik Mouritzen4
Estimated H-index: 4
(AU: Aarhus University),
Niels Opstrup3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Southern Denmark)
This chapter goes deeper into the analysis of how the BRI has affected researchers’ motivation by testing the so-called crowding-out hypothesis. It has been argued that ‘governance by numbers’ and evaluation of research by output control will decrease scholars’ intrinsically motivated curiosity and substitute a ‘taste for science’ with a ‘taste for publications’ (Osterloh in Anal & Krit 2: 276, 2010). Based on both qualitative data and quantitative analysis, there is no evidence that the BRI has...
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Published on Apr 16, 2019in Palgrave Communications
Cinzia Castiglioni4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UCSC: Catholic University of the Sacred Heart),
Edoardo Lozza9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UCSC: Catholic University of the Sacred Heart)
+ 1 AuthorsWilco W. van Dijk22
Estimated H-index: 22
(LEI: Leiden University)
Despite tax compliance being mandatory and charitable giving being voluntary, both can be seen as two sides of the same coin. Paying taxes and making monetary donations are two complementary ways to financially provide for the common good. Using goal-framing theory, an experimental study with a mixed-factorial design (N = 435) was conducted to test the effects of different frames on the intention to pay taxes and make charitable donations. Our results showed that for real taxpayers (i.e., for em...
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Published on Apr 25, 2018in Disability and Rehabilitation 2.05
Andrea Kusec3
Estimated H-index: 3
(McMaster University),
Diana Velikonja14
Estimated H-index: 14
(HHS: Hamilton Health Sciences)
+ 1 AuthorsJocelyn E. Harris18
Estimated H-index: 18
(McMaster University)
AbstractBackground: In acquired brain injury (ABI) populations, low motivation to engage in rehabilitation is associated with poor rehabilitation outcomes. Motivation in ABI is thought to be influenced by internal and external factors. This is consistent with Self-determination Theory, which posits that motivation is intrinsic and extrinsic. This paper discusses the benefit of using Self-determination Theory to guide measurement of motivation in ABI.Methods: Using a narrative review of the Self-...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 22, 2018in Self and Identity 1.44
Roy F. Baurneister130
Estimated H-index: 130
(UQ: University of Queensland),
Bradley R. Entner Wright18
Estimated H-index: 18
(UConn: University of Connecticut),
David M. Carreon1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Stanford University)
AbstractAn experience sampling study with a large community sample (N = 3327) furnished data on trait and state self-control in everyday life. State measures were self-reports of ego-depleting events (restraining self, effortful decisions, and pushing self to do unwanted tasks) and feelings of depletion (emotional overreactions, difficulty making up mind, less mental energy). People with high trait self-control reported fewer such feelings and events than others. Poor sleep quality and interpers...
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Published on Jun 1, 2019in Entertainment Computing
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Published on Aug 1, 2019in Journal of Cleaner Production 6.39
Maria Carmela Aprile1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Parthenope University of Naples),
Damiano Fiorillo8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Parthenope University of Naples)
Abstract This paper studies the relationship between environmental concern and household separate waste collection, controlling for social capital, in Italy in the year 1998 when policy makers started to raise awareness of the importance of waste prevention, disposal and recycling. At the time, the public's sensitivity and attitude to waste issues were mainly influenced by their own lifestyles. We consider five separate waste collections, namely paper, plastic, glass, aluminium and food waste, t...
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Published on Aug 1, 2019in Computers in Human Behavior 4.31
Christopher Groening (WWU: University of Münster), Carmen Binnewies17
Estimated H-index: 17
(WWU: University of Münster)
Abstract Gamification experiences further growth in our society with broad practical implications of game design elements in applications, activities, and services. In our study, we focus on one single element in the form of digital achievements, one cornerstone of gamification, to gain unconfounded insights into the effects and working mechanisms of digital achievements. In a controlled experimental environment we investigate their impact on motivation and performance. Three research questions ...
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