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Reversion to virulence of a subtype B avian metapneumovirus vaccine: Is it time for regulators to require availability of vaccine progenitors?

Published on Aug 1, 2014in Vaccine3.269
· DOI :10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.06.030
Mattia Cecchinato14
Estimated H-index: 14
(UNIPD: University of Padua),
Elena Catelli14
Estimated H-index: 14
(UNIBO: University of Bologna)
+ 3 AuthorsClive J. Naylor18
Estimated H-index: 18
(University of Liverpool)
Abstract
Abstract Empirically derived live avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) vaccines developed during the late 80s and early 90s have generally performed well in controlling turkey rhinotracheitis. Nonetheless, unstable attenuation was previously demonstrated in an AMPV subtype A vaccine. Until now this had not been investigated in subtype B vaccines due to lack of any similar availability of a vaccine progenitor or its sequence. The publication of the full genome sequence for the VCO3 vaccine progenitor facilitated a conclusive investigation of two AMPVs isolated from poults on a farm which had been vaccinated with VCO3 derived vaccine. Full genome sequencing of the isolates and their comparison to sequences of the vaccine and its progenitor, confirmed their vaccine origin. After determining the absence of extraneous infectious agents, one of these virus isolates was inoculated into 1-day-old turkeys in disease secure isolators and shown to cause disease with a severity similar to that caused by virulent field virus. This suggests that instability in live AMPV vaccines may be generalized and highlights the need for availability of vaccine progenitor sequences for the field assessment of all live viral vaccines.
  • References (30)
  • Citations (10)
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References30
Newest
#1D. GiovanardiH-Index: 8
#2Caterina Lupini (UNIBO: University of Bologna)H-Index: 12
Last. Elena Catelli (UNIBO: University of Bologna)H-Index: 14
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The aim of this study was to evaluate if the exposure to Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and/or to Turkey hemorrhagic enteritis virus (THEV) was significant for the induction of episodes of colibacillosis in aMPV and THEV vaccinated turkeys. Colibacillosis-associated mortality was recorded and longitudinal virological studies performed in three consecutive turkey flocks reared in the same farm. aMPV and THEV diagnostic swabs and blood samples were made once a week up to 14 weeks of age. Swabs were ...
5 CitationsSource
#1Valeria Listorti (UNIBO: University of Bologna)H-Index: 6
#2Caterina Lupini (UNIBO: University of Bologna)H-Index: 12
Last. Elena Catelli (UNIBO: University of Bologna)H-Index: 14
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Live vaccines predominantly control avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in poultry flocks, but vaccine virus can be found for extended periods after application. The most frequently used aMPV vaccine in Italy, VCO3 subtype B, was shown to contain a unique Tru9I restriction endonuclease site within the amplicons produced by a commonly used aMPV diagnostic reverse transcriptase (RT)-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Analysis of European and database logged subtype B aMPV sequences confirm...
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#1Marco Falchieri (University of Liverpool)H-Index: 3
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Last. Clive J. Naylor (University of Liverpool)H-Index: 18
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Abstract The study investigates the ability of subtype A Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) to accept foreign genes and be used as a vector for delivery of Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) QX genes to chickens. Initially the GFP gene was added to AMPV at all gene junctions in conjunction with the development of cassetted full length DNA AMPV copies. After recombinant virus had been recovered by reverse genetics, GFP positions supporting gene expression while maintaining virus viability in vitro, were...
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In recent years, special attention has been paid to real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) diagnosis, due to its numerous advantages over classical PCR. A new multiplex quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) with molecular beacon probe assay, designed to target the SH gene, was developed. The test was evaluated in terms of specificity, sensitivity and repeatability, and compared with conventional RT nested-PCR based on the G gene. All of th...
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SUMMARY. The current information on the prevalence of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in layers is fragmentary and its true impact on egg production often remains unknown or unclear. In order to draw an epidemiologic picture of aMPV presence in layer flocks in Italy, a survey was performed on 19 flocks of pullets and layers based on longitudinal studies or sporadic samplings. aMPV was detected by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, and blood samples were collected for serology by aMPV ELISA. ...
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Previously, a virulent avian metapneumovirus, farm isolate Italy 309/04, was shown to have been derived from a live vaccine. Virulence due to the five nucleotide mutations associated with the reversion to virulence was investigated by their addition to the genome of the vaccine strain using reverse genetics. Virulence of these recombinant viruses was determined by infection of 1-day-old turkeys. Disease levels resulting from the combined two matrix mutations was indistinguishable from that produ...
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Complete nucleotide sequences were determined for subtype B avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), the attenuated vaccine strain VCO3/50 and its parental pathogenic strain VCO3/60616. The genomes of both strains comprised 13,508 nucleotides (nt), with a 42-nt leader at the 3′-end and a 46-nt trailer at the 5′-end. The genome contains eight genes in the order 3′-N-P-M-F-M2-SH-G-L-5′, which is the same order shown in the other metapneumoviruses. The genes are flanked on either side by conserved transcripti...
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