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Cortisol levels in unmedicated patients with unipolar and bipolar major depression using hair and saliva specimens.

Published on Mar 5, 2020in International Journal of Bipolar Disorders3.55
· DOI :10.1186/S40345-020-0180-X
Herane-Vives A (UCL: University College London), Andres Herane-Vives4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UCL: University College London)
+ 6 AuthorsAnthony J. Cleare52
Estimated H-index: 52
('KCL': King's College London)
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Differentiating between unipolar and bipolar depression can be clinically challenging, especially at first presentation. Patterns of cortisol secretion could aid diagnostic discrimination in affective disorders although there has been little comparative research to date. In this study, we investigated acute (saliva) and chronic (hair) cortisol levels concurrently in unmedicated unipolar and bipolar disorders by using conventional diagnostic criteria and self-report measures. METHODS: Patients with unipolar and bipolar major depression and healthy controls were recruited and assessed. Cortisol levels were extracted from saliva and hair specimens. Depressive features were investigated according to diagnostic groups and with a continuous self-report measure of bipolarity using the Hypomania Checklist (HCL-33). RESULTS: Whilst a trend towards a reduction in the total daily salivary cortisol output-area under the curve with respect to the ground (AUCg)-was detected in depressive disorders across diagnosis, the self-administrated bipolarity index suggested that an increase in bipolarity symptoms predicted lower cortisol levels using AUCg. Chronic cortisol measurement did not discriminate unipolar from bipolar depression. CONCLUSION: Results suggested that whilst a low total daily salivary cortisol output (AUCg) might be associated with depressive symptoms, a self-reported measure of bipolarity predicts lower daily cortisol output.
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References54
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Abstract Objective Hair cortisol is a promising new biomarker of retrospective systemic cortisol concentration. In this study, we compared hair cortisol concentrations in patients with newly diagnosed bipolar disorder (BD), their unaffected first-degree relatives and healthy individuals and identified potential predictors of hair cortisol concentrations in patients with BD. Method In a cross-sectional design, we compared hair cortisol concentrations in 181 patients with newly diagnosed/first epi...
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#1Andres Herane-Vives ('KCL': King's College London)H-Index: 4
#2V. De Angel ('KCL': King's College London)H-Index: 2
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BACKGROUND: Atypical depression may show lowered rather than raised short-term cortisol levels. Atypical major depressive episodes (A-MDE) may also be more closely linked to environmental factors and show overlap with somatic symptom disorders. Hair specimens allow measuring long-term cortisol levels. METHODS: Twenty-seven A-MDE and 44 NA-MDE patients and 40 matched controls were tested. Measures of hair cortisol concentration [HCC] covering the previous 3 months and short-term cortisol paramete...
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#1M. Belvederi Murri (UniGe: University of Genoa)H-Index: 19
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Abstract Objectives To provide a quantitative and qualitative synthesis of the available evidence on the role of Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal (HPA) axis in the pathophysiology of Bipolar Disorder (BD). Methods Meta-analysis and meta-regression of case-control studies examining the levels of cortisol, ACTH, CRH levels. Systematic review of stress reactivity, genetic, molecular and neuroimaging studies related to HPA axis activity in BD. Results Forty-one studies were included in the meta-analys...
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