Lipids, Lipoprotein Distribution and Nutritional Parameters over the Ramadan Period in Hemodialysis Patients
The period of Ramadan (R) is associated with dramatic changes in eating habits involving extended periods of fasting on a daily basis. The current study assessed whether lipids and lipoproteins were impacted during R in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Forty-five subjects in an outpatient dialysis clinic in Saudi Arabia were evaluated for anthropometric and lipid changes on a monthly basis before, during as well as one and two months after R. In addition to routine biochemical measures, anthropometric assessments including hand-grip strength (HGS), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), plasma lipids and lipoproteins were evaluated. Dietary assessment was carried out using 24 h recalls. Over the course of the study, changes in renal-related parameters (creatinine, albumin, Kt/V) were minor, as were changes in plasma lipids. Large high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) accounted for the majority of their respective lipoproteins and their proportions did not change over the study period. Mean LDL particle diameters were higher during the R period, but the changes over the study period were small. Calorie intake during R (2139 ± 709 kcal/d) was significantly higher than the value noted two month post-R (1755 ± 424 kcal/d) and this was associated with significant increases in protein (69 ± 24 vs. 60 ± 24 g/d) and fat (97 ± 38, vs. 73 ± 35 g/d), respectively. No changes were noted with respect to HGS and MAMC. These data show that for HD patients, the period of R results in temporal or non-significant effects on plasma lipids, despite changes in nutrient intake.