Match!

Optimal Development of Youth Athletes Toward Elite Athletic Performance: How to Coach Their Motivation, Plan Exercise Training, and Pace the Race

Published on Aug 20, 2019
· DOI :10.3389/fspor.2019.00014
Stein Gerrit Paul Menting1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UMCG: University Medical Center Groningen),
David T. Hendry3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Northumbria University)
+ 2 AuthorsFlorentina J. Hettinga18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Northumbria University)
Sources
Abstract
Elite athletes have invested many years in training and competition to reach the elite level. One very important factor on the road to elite performance is the decision-making process regarding the regulation of effort over time, termed as pacing behavior. The regulation of effort is vital for optimal athletic performance during a single race and over a longer period of time (e.g., a competitive season) as an inadequate regulation could result in a higher risk of injuries, overtraining, and drop-out. Despite this, there is limited knowledge on how young athletes learn and develop the abilities related to pacing. Pacing behavior of athletes develops from childhood throughout adolescence and is thought to be closely connected to physical maturation, the development of pre-frontal cortical related (meta-) cognitive functions, as well as the gathering of experience with exercise tasks. The motivation of an athlete can critically influence how an athlete paces a single race, but also how they distribute their effort over a longer period of time. Coaches are advised to closely monitor the development of pacing behavior during adolescence (e.g., by gathering split times, and related physiological measurement, during training and competition), as well as the underlying factors including physical maturation (meta-) cognitive development and the motivation of young athletes. Furthermore, pacing behavior development could be aided by providing training in which the task, individual, and environment are manipulated. Hereby, presenting athletes with the opportunity to gain experience in situations which closely resemble the perceptual-motor conditions of upcoming competitions.
  • References (70)
  • Citations (0)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
7 Citations
2 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
References70
Newest
#1Stein Gerrit Paul Menting (UMCG: University Medical Center Groningen)H-Index: 1
#2Marije T. Elferink-Gemser (UMCG: University Medical Center Groningen)H-Index: 24
Last. Florentina J. Hettinga (University of Essex)H-Index: 3
view all 4 authors...
ABSTRACTAthletes’ energy distribution over a race (e.g. pacing behaviour) varies across different sports. Swimming is a head-to-head sport with unique characteristics, such as propulsion through wa...
1 CitationsSource
#1Florentina J. Hettinga (Northumbria University)H-Index: 3
#2Andrew Mark Edwards (CCCU: Canterbury Christ Church University)H-Index: 1
Last. Brian Hanley (LBU: Leeds Beckett University)H-Index: 10
view all 3 authors...
The purpose of this study was to examine whether World Championship and Olympic medallist endurance athletes pace similarly to their race opponents, where and when critical differences in intra-race pacing occur, and the tactical strategies employed to optimally manage energy resources. We analyzed pacing and tactics across the 800, 1,500, 5,000, 10,000 m, marathon and racewalk events, providing a broad overview for optimal preparation for racing and pacing. Official electronic splits from men's...
1 CitationsSource
#1Laura JonkerH-Index: 10
Last. Chris VisscherH-Index: 3
view all 5 authors...
1 CitationsSource
#1Wanja WolffH-Index: 8
#2Maik BielekeH-Index: 4
Last. Julia SchülerH-Index: 17
view all 3 authors...
1 CitationsSource
#1Sheree McCormickH-Index: 1
Last. Maurizio BertolloH-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
1 CitationsSource
#1Ian Renshaw (QUT: Queensland University of Technology)H-Index: 24
#2J-Y Chow (NIE: National Institute of Education)H-Index: 1
ABSTRACTBackgroundThe Constraints-Led Approach (CLA) has emerged as a viable pedagogical option for teachers and coaches in the sport and physical education. The emergence of a CLA to teaching and ...
6 CitationsSource
#1Stein Gerrit Paul Menting (University of Essex)H-Index: 1
#2Marco J. Konings (University of Essex)H-Index: 8
Last. Florentina J. Hettinga (University of Essex)H-Index: 3
view all 4 authors...
Purpose: To gain insight into the development of pacing behavior of youth athletes in 1500-m short-track speed-skating competition. Methods: Lap times and positioning of elite short-track skaters during the seasons 2011/2012-2015/2016 were analyzed (N = 9715). The participants were grouped into age groups: under 17 (U17), under 19 (U19), under 21 (U21), and senior. The difference between age groups, sexes, and stages of competition within each age group were analyzed through a multivariate analy...
3 CitationsSource
#1Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis (UTH: University of Thessaly)H-Index: 20
#2Khelifa Bartura (UTH: University of Thessaly)H-Index: 1
Last. Andreas D. Flouris (UTH: University of Thessaly)H-Index: 33
view all 6 authors...
The study examined the effects of a motivational self-talk intervention on endurance cycling performance in hot conditions. Participants were 16 physically active adult men. After a baseline VO2 peak assessment and two training sessions, participants completed a 30 min cycling trial in a hot environment (35°C, 45% relative humidity) while maintaining a steady rate of perceived exertion. Participants of the intervention group produced greater power output during the final third of the trial. Find...
3 CitationsSource
The aim of this study was to quantify peak age and improvements over the preceding years to peak age in elite athletic contestants according to athlete performance level, sex and discipline. Individual season bests for world-ranked top 100 athletes from 2002 to 2016 (14937 athletes and 57049 individual results) were downloaded from the International Association of Athletics Federations’ web site. Individual performance trends were generated by fitting a quadratic curve separately to each athlete...
10 CitationsSource
#1Lieke Schiphof-Godart (University of Essex)H-Index: 3
#2Bart Roelands (Vrije Universiteit Brussel)H-Index: 26
Last. Florentina J. Hettinga (University of Essex)H-Index: 18
view all 3 authors...
Performance in endurance sports relies on athletes’ drive, which is the sum of all factors pushing athletes to exert effort during exercise. Mental fatigue can influence endurance performance by decreasing athletes’ drive to exercise. From a psychological point of view, mental fatigue has two separate components: it can affect drive by increasing the perceived effort necessary for a given task (“I cannot do this, I am too exhausted”), or by decreasing the perceived value of the reward that can b...
3 CitationsSource
Cited By0
Newest