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The oldest Inocelliidae (Raphidioptera) from the Eocene of western North America

Published on Aug 1, 2019in Canadian Entomologist1.212
路 DOI :10.4039/tce.2019.26
Vladimir N. Makarkin17
Estimated H-index: 17
(RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences),
S. Bruce Archibald16
Estimated H-index: 16
(SFU: Simon Fraser University),
James E. Jepson7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UCC: University College Cork)
Abstract
One new genus of Inocelliidae (Raphidioptera) with one new species and one undetermined specimen is described from the Eocene of North America: Paraksenocellia borealis new genus, new species from the early Eocene (Ypresian) Okanagan Highlands shale at Driftwood Canyon, British Columbia, Canada (a forewing), and Paraksenocellia species from the middle Eocene (Lutetian) of the Coal Creek Member of the Kishenehn Formation, northwestern Montana, United States of America (a hind wing). These are the oldest records of the family. The new genus possesses many character states that are rare in Inocelliidae, e.g ., a very long pterostigma extending to ScP in both the forewings and hind wings; the forewing subcostal space has three crossveins; the forewing and hind wing AA1 are deeply forked; the crossvein between CuA and CuP is located far distad the crossvein 1r-m. Paraksenocellia is confidently a member of the Inocelliidae, as it possesses a proximal shift of the basal crossvein 1r-m (connecting R and M) in the forewing and the loss of the basal crossvein 1r-m in the hind wing, both apomorphies of the family. It shares some character states with the Mesozoic Mesoraphidiidae, which we consider to be mostly stem-group plesiomorphies.
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References28
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#1Mary R. Dawson (Carnegie Museum of Natural History)H-Index: 22
#2Kurt N. Constenius (Carnegie Museum of Natural History)H-Index: 3
The Kishenehn Formation is a unit of sedimentary rocks exposed largely in the cutbanks of the Flathead River and its tributaries in and around Glacier National Park in northwestern Montana and adjacent British Columbia. From these rocks along the Flathead's Middle Fork, which range from very fine-grained oil shales to and including pebble-cobble conglomerates, vertebrate and molluscan faunas of middle Eocene age have been collected over nearly 40 years by a combination of prospecting, with acces...
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#1Ya-nan LyuH-Index: 1
#2Dong RenH-Index: 27
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Lyu, Y.-N., Ren, d. & liu, x., March 2017. Review of the fossil snakefly family Mesoraphidiidae (Insecta: Raphidioptera) in the Middle Jurassic of China, with description of a new species. Alcheringa 00, 000鈥000. ISSN 0311-5518.The fossil snakefly family Mesoraphidiidae from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Inner Mongolia, China is reviewed. Three genera and four species of Mesoraphidiidae are recorded, including a new species, Ororaphidia bifurcata sp. nov. Intraspecific morphologic...
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#1Xingyue Liu (CAU: China Agricultural University)H-Index: 14
#2Xiumei Lu (CAU: China Agricultural University)H-Index: 3
Last. Weiwei ZhangH-Index: 4
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The Mesozoic amber snakeflies are important for understanding the early evolution and phylogeny of Raphidioptera. Here we describe three new genera and four new species of the extinct family Mesoraphidiidae from the mid Cretaceous amber of northern Myanmar, including Dolichoraphidia aspoecki gen. et sp. nov., Dolichoraphidia engeli gen. et sp. nov., Rhynchoraphidia burmana gen. et sp. nov., and Burmoraphidia reni gen. et sp. nov. All these species, together with the previously described species ...
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#1Harold G. Pierce (Carnegie Museum of Natural History)H-Index: 3
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ABSTRACT The Kishenehn Formation of northwest Montana and southeast British Columbia hosts one of the most prolific and diverse assemblages of fossil nonmarine mollusks in North America. More than 76 taxa, of which 41 are newly described species, of middle Eocene to early Miocene terrestrial and aquatic gastropods have been collected and described. This paper reports on the discoveries made in the oldest part of the formation that is middle Eocene in age in the southernmost part of the Kishenehn...
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The lacustrine oil shales of the Coal Creek Member of the Kishenehn Formation in northwestern Montana comprise a relatively unstudied middle Eocene fossil insect locality. Herein, we detail the stratigraphic position of the fossiliferous unit, describe the insect fauna of the Coal Creek locality and document its bias towards very small but remarkably preserved insects. In addition, the depositional environment is examined and the mineral constituents of the laminations that comprise the varves o...
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Eocene climate and associated biotic patterns provide an analog system to understand their modern interactions. The relationship between mean annual temperatures and winter temperatures鈥攖emperature seasonality鈥攎ay be an important factor in this dynamic. Fossils of frost-intolerant palms imply low Eocene temperature seasonality into high latitudes, constraining average winter temperatures there to >8 掳C. However, their presence in a paleocommunity may be obscured by taphonomic and identification ...
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#1Vladimir N. Makarkin (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 17
#2S. Bruce Archibald (SFU: Simon Fraser University)H-Index: 16
The snakeflies (Raphidioptera) of the late Eocene Florissant Formation (Colorado, USA) are revised. Seven species of Raphidiidae are assigned to three genera, i.e., Megaraphidia Cockerell, 1907, Archiraphidia Handlirsch, 1910, and Florissantoraphidia gen. nov. Dictyoraphidia Handlirsch, 1910 is assigned to Baissopteridae, a first Cenozoic record of the family. Archiraphidia tumulata (Scudder, 1890), A. tranquilla (Scudder, 1890) and A.? somnolenta (Scudder, 1890), stat. res . are treated as dist...
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Abstract We test Janzen's (1967) hypothesis that the low temperature seasonality in the modern tropics accounts for increased local species turnover (beta diversity) across montane landscapes relative to those of the more seasonal Temperate Zone. In the Eocene, low seasonality extended beyond the hot tropics to Polar Regions, therefore, its effects on montane dispersal ability should have been decoupled from low latitude. We sampled fossil insect communities across the Okanagan Highlands: a thou...
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The snakefly genus Sininocellia is one of the most enigmatic groups in Inocelliidae, with an obscure phylogenetic status due to lack of male adults. A newly discovered male adult of Sininocellia gigantos Yang is described, representing the first male of this genus. Additionally, a new species, Sininocellia chikun sp. n., is described based on two females from central China. The phylogenetic relationships between Sininocellia and other relatives as well as the biogeography are discussed. (漏 2012 ...
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