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Dietary Glycemic Index and Load and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes : A Systematic Review and Updated Meta-Analyses of Prospective Cohort Studies

Published on Jun 5, 2019in Nutrients4.171
· DOI :10.3390/nu11061280
Geoffrey Livesey25
Estimated H-index: 25
,
Richard J. K. Taylor64
Estimated H-index: 64
+ 22 AuthorsJennie Brand-Miller52
Estimated H-index: 52
Sources
Abstract
Published meta-analyses indicate significant but inconsistent incident type-2 diabetes (T2D)-dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) risk ratios or risk relations (RR). It is now over a decade ago that a published meta-analysis used a predefined standard to identify valid studies. Considering valid studies only, and using random effects dose–response meta-analysis (DRM) while withdrawing spurious results (p 1.20 with a lower 95% confidence limit >1.10 across typical intakes (approximately 10th to 90th percentiles of population intakes). The combined T2D–GI RR was 1.27 (1.15–1.40) (p < 0.001, n = 10 studies) per 10 units GI, while that for the T2D–GL RR was 1.26 (1.15–1.37) (p < 0.001, n = 15) per 80 g/d GL in a 2000 kcal (8400 kJ) diet. The corresponding global DRM using restricted cubic splines were 1.87 (1.56–2.25) (p < 0.001, n = 10) and 1.89 (1.66–2.16) (p < 0.001, n = 15) from 47.6 to 76.1 units GI and 73 to 257 g/d GL in a 2000 kcal diet, respectively. In conclusion, among adults initially in good health, diets higher in GI or GL were robustly associated with incident T2D. Together with mechanistic and other data, this supports that consideration should be given to these dietary risk factors in nutrition advice. Concerning the public health relevance at the global level, our evidence indicates that GI and GL are substantial food markers predicting the development of T2D worldwide, for persons of European ancestry and of East Asian ancestry.
  • References (75)
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#1Alessio Crippa (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 9
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Last. Nicola Orsini (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 45
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The standard two-stage approach for estimating non-linear dose–response curves based on aggregated data typically excludes those studies with less than three exposure groups. We develop the one-stage method as a linear mixed model and present the main aspects of the methodology, including model specification, estimation, testing, prediction, goodness-of-fit, model comparison, and quantification of between-studies heterogeneity. Using both fictitious and real data from a published meta-analysis, ...
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The quality of carbohydrate-rich foods rather than quantity has the strongest effect on major health outcomes. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of prospective studies report lower mortality and reduced incidence of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus and colorectal cancer in people who habitually consume diets rich in fibre and whole grain.
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Abstract Objective To clarify the role of dietary carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load (GL) in progression from health to coronary heart disease (CHD) by determining disease-nutrient risk relation (RR) values needed for intake ranges within jurisdictions and across the globe. Methods We performed a literature search of MEDLINE and EMBASE for prospective cohort studies that used truly valid dietary instruments in heathy adults published from January 1, 2000, to June 5, 2018. Relev...
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#1Andrew N. Reynolds (University of Otago)H-Index: 4
#2J. John MannH-Index: 142
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Summary Meta-analysis has become a widely used tool to combine results from independent studies. The collected studies are homogeneous if they share a common underlying true effect size; otherwise, they are heterogeneous. A fixed-effect model is customarily used when the studies are deemed homogeneous, while a random-effects model is used for heterogeneous studies. Assessing heterogeneity in meta-analysis is critical for model selection and decision making. Ideally, if heterogeneity is present, ...
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