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Intracellular Neutrophil Oxidants: From Laboratory Curiosity to Clinical Reality

Published on Jun 1, 2019in Journal of Immunology4.718
· DOI :10.4049/jimmunol.1900235
Claes Dahlgren45
Estimated H-index: 45
,
Anna Karlsson41
Estimated H-index: 41
,
Johan Bylund32
Estimated H-index: 32
Source
Abstract
: The phagocyte NADPH oxidase is responsible for the neutrophil's great capacity to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). The NADPH oxidase can be assembled in the plasma membrane, as well as in membranes of intracellular vesicles, giving neutrophils the ability to direct ROS production to distinct subcellular sites. Neutrophil ROS contribute to microbial killing, trigger formation of neutrophil extracellular traps and appear to partake in inflammation control. Consequently, function-disrupting mutations in the NADPH oxidase lead to chronic granulomatous disease, characterized by severe infections and inflammatory disorders. Recent experimental data and description of a novel chronic granulomatous disease subtype (p40phox-deficiency) imply that ROS generated in intracellular compartments are key for NETosis and for controlling inflammatory signaling. We foresee boosted interest in intracellular ROS production. To fully understand where and how such ROS function, however, limitations of assay systems to measure ROS need to be appreciated, and the development of novel techniques/reagents would be highly useful.
  • References (85)
  • Citations (2)
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Short Summary The phagocyte respiratory burst is mediated by the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, a multi-protein subunit complex that facilitates production of reactive oxygen species and which is essential for host defence. Monogenic deficiency of individual subunits leads to chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), which is characterized by an inability to make reactive oxygen species, leading to severe opportunistic infections and auto-inflammation. However, not all cases of CGD are due to mutations in ...
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Nearly 15 years after the first description of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), our knowledge concerning this structure has expanded considerably. Initially, NETs were considered solely an elaborate function of the innate immune system to combat invading microorganisms. Successively it became clear that NETs have farther-reaching capabilities. They are involved in a series of pathophysiological mechanisms ranging from inflammation to thrombosis where they fulfill essential functions when p...
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Mutations in genes encoding subunits of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase complex are recognized to cause chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a severe primary immunodeficiency. Here we describe how deficiency of CYBC1, a previously uncharacterized protein in humans (C17orf62), leads to reduced expression of NADPH oxidase’s main subunit (gp91phox) and results in CGD. Analyzing two brothers diagnosed with CGD we identify a homozygous loss-of-function mutation, p.Tyr2Ter, in CYBC1. Imputation of p.Tyr2T...
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: The rhodamine-based probe R19-S has been shown to react with hypochlorous acid (HOCl) to yield fluorescent R19, but not with some other oxidants including hydrogen peroxide. Here, we further examined the specificity of R19-S and used it for real-time monitoring of HOCl production in neutrophil phagosomes. We show that it also reacts rapidly with hypobromous acid, bromamines, and hypoiodous acid, indicating that R19-S responds to these reactive halogen species as well as HOCl. Hypothiocyanous a...
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Abstract The phagocyte NADPH oxidase is a multi subunit protein complex that generates reactive oxygen species at cell membranes and within phagosomes. It is essential for host defence as evidenced by the severe immunodeficiency syndrome caused by a loss of one of the subunits. This is known as chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). However, the phagocyte NADPH oxidase also has a key role to play in regulating immunity and it is notable that chronic granulomatous disease is also characterised by a...
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Biallelic loss-of-function (LOF) mutations of the NCF4 gene, encoding the p40phox subunit of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, have been described in only 1 patient. We report on 24 p40phox-deficient patients from 12 additional families in 8 countries. These patients display 8 different in-frame or out-of-frame mutations of NCF4 that are homozygous in 11 of the families and compound heterozygous in another. When overexpressed in NB4 neutrophil-like cells and EBV-transformed B cells in vitro, the muta...
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Neutrophils are the forerunner in innate immunity by defending the host organisms against infectious pathogens. During such process, neutrophils reach the site of inflammation/infection and eliminate the pathogens by phagocytosis as well as by forming the neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs trap and eradicate a number of microbes including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses. NETs consist of DNA which is decorated with histones and granular proteins such as neutrophil elastase (NE), gelat...
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: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a primary immunodeficiency characterized by a deficient neutrophil oxidative burst and the inadequate killing of microbes, is well known to cause a significantly increased risk of invasive infection. However, infectious complications are not the sole manifestations of CGD; substantial additional morbidity is driven by noninfectious complications also. These complications can include, for example, a wide range of inflammatory diseases that affect the gastroi...
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