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Ketogenic diet ameliorates axonal defects and promotes myelination in Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease

Published on Jul 1, 2019in Acta Neuropathologica18.174
· DOI :10.1007/s00401-019-01985-2
Sina K. Stumpf4
Estimated H-index: 4
(MPG: Max Planck Society),
Stefan A. Berghoff4
Estimated H-index: 4
(MPG: Max Planck Society)
+ 17 AuthorsGesine Saher21
Estimated H-index: 21
(MPG: Max Planck Society)
Sources
Abstract
Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease (PMD) is an untreatable and fatal leukodystrophy. In a model of PMD with perturbed blood–brain barrier integrity, cholesterol supplementation promotes myelin membrane growth. Here, we show that in contrast to the mouse model, dietary cholesterol in two PMD patients did not lead to a major advancement of hypomyelination, potentially because the intact blood–brain barrier precludes its entry into the CNS. We therefore turned to a PMD mouse model with preserved blood–brain barrier integrity and show that a high-fat/low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet restored oligodendrocyte integrity and increased CNS myelination. This dietary intervention also ameliorated axonal degeneration and normalized motor functions. Moreover, in a paradigm of adult remyelination, ketogenic diet facilitated repair and attenuated axon damage. We suggest that a therapy with lipids such as ketone bodies, that readily enter the brain, can circumvent the requirement of a disrupted blood–brain barrier in the treatment of myelin disease.
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In patients with Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease 1A (CMT1A), peripheral nerves display aberrant myelination during postnatal development, followed by slowly progressive demyelination and axonal loss during adult life. Here, we show that myelinating Schwann cells in a rat model of CMT1A exhibit a developmental defect that includes reduced transcription of genes required for myelin lipid biosynthesis. Consequently, lipid incorporation into myelin is reduced, leading to an overall distorted stoichiomet...
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Impaired nerve conduction, axonal degeneration, and synaptic alterations contribute to neurological disabilities in inflammatory demyelinating diseases. Cerebellar dysfunction is associated with demyelinating disorders, but the alterations of axon terminals in cerebellar gray matter during chronic demyelination are still unclear. We analyzed the morphological and ultrastructural changes of climbing fiber terminals in a mouse model of hereditary chronic demyelination. Three-dimensional ultrastruc...
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The ketogenic diet (KD) has been found to be effective in reducing seizures in patients with treatment-refractory epilepsy. Less attention has been paid to additional cognitive benefits of KD. The aim of the present paper was to provide a comprehensive overview of the studies reporting effects on cognition after KD treatment in adults and children with epilepsy. To address this aim, the clinical literature on cognitive effects of KD in patients with epilepsy was reviewed using a systematic appro...
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Abstract Background Adapted ketogenic diet (AKD) and caloric restriction (CR) have been suggested as alternative therapeutic strategies for inflammatory, hyperproliferative and neurodegenerative diseases. Pro-inflammatory eicosanoids have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis since they augment vascular permeability and induce leukocyte migration into the brain. We explored the impact of ketogenic diets on gene expression of biosynthetic enzymes for pro- (ALOX5, COX1, COX2) a...
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Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a fatal hypomyelinating disorder characterized by early impairment of motor development, nystagmus, choreoathetotic movements, ataxia and progressive spasticity. PMD is caused by variations in the proteolipid protein gene PLP1, which encodes the two major myelin proteins of the central nervous system, PLP and its spliced isoform DM20, in oligodendrocytes. Large duplications including the entire PLP1 gene are the most frequent causative mutation leading to th...
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Lipids are a fundamental class of organic molecules implicated in a wide range of biological processes related to their structural diversity, and based on this can be broadly classified into five categories; fatty acids, triacylglycerols (TAGs), phospholipids, sterol lipids and sphingolipids. Different lipid classes play major roles in neuronal cell populations; they can be used as energy substrates, act as building blocks for cellular structural machinery, serve as bioactive molecules, or a com...
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