Surface-based shared and distinct resting functional connectivity in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder
Background Both attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders with a high prevalence. They are often comorbid and both exhibit abnormalities in sustained attention, yet common and distinct neural patterns of ASD and ADHD remain unidentified. Aims To investigate shared and distinct functional connectivity patterns in a relatively large sample of boys (7- to 15-year-olds) with ADHD, ASD and typical development matched by age, gender and IQ. Method We applied machine learning techniques to investigate patterns of surface-based brain resting-state connectivity in 86 boys with ASD, 83 boys with ADHD and 125 boys with typical development. Results We observed increased functional connectivity within the limbic and somatomotor networks in boys with ASD compared with boys with typical development. We also observed increased functional connectivity within the limbic, visual, default mode, somatomotor, dorsal attention, frontoparietal and ventral attention networks in boys with ADHD compared with boys with ASD. In addition, using a machine learning approach, we were able to discriminate typical development from ASD, typical development from ADHD and ASD from ADHD with accuracy rates of 76.3%, 84.1%, and 79.3%, respectively. Conclusions Our results may shed new light on the underlying mechanisms of ASD and ADHD and facilitate the development of new diagnostic methods for these disorders. Declaration of interest J.K. holds equity in a startup company, MNT.