Early majority engagement pathway best defines transitions from youth to adult elite men's soccer in the UK: A three time-point retrospective and prospective study

Published on May 1, 2018in Psychology of Sport and Exercise2.71
· DOI :10.1016/J.PSYCHSPORT.2018.01.009
David T. Hendry3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UBC: University of British Columbia),
Nicola J. Hodges35
Estimated H-index: 35
(UBC: University of British Columbia)
Abstract Objectives We evaluated the relative importance of developmental soccer activities engaged in during childhood and adolescence and their relationships with attainment of youth and adult professional status. Design and methods A mixed retrospective and prospective study was conducted whereby youth academy soccer players in the UK completed demographic and practice history questionnaires at Time 1 (T1; n = 102; 13–15 yr) and T2 (for those retained on a professional contract at ∼17 yr; n = 26; termed Professional-youth). At T3 (∼20 yr), players were further differentiated on the basis of progression to adult professional soccer (Adult-professional, n = 9; Youth-professional only, n = 17). Results Less than 10% of the sample specialized only in soccer from childhood and no early specializers progressed to Adult-professional. Soccer was the majority sport from early childhood for nearly all players. Players that attained Professional-youth status (T2) accumulated more hours in organized soccer practice during childhood and started in an academy earlier than those that did not. The future adult and youth professionals did not differ on these childhood variables. However, a separate comparison of the professional groups showed that the Adult-Professionals accumulated more hours in play (and proportionately more hours in play) when estimates were based on T1 and T2, than the youth professional. Conclusions These findings support the early-engagement pathway as a model for successful transitions in professional soccer amongst male youth elite players. This pathway is primarily defined by majority engagement in high volumes of domain specific practice and play in childhood.
  • References (53)
  • Citations (10)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
50 Citations
146 Citations
38 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
#1Julie PallantH-Index: 1
Preface Data files and website Introduction and overview Part One: Getting started 1 Designing a study 2 Preparing a codebook 3 Getting to know IBM SPSS Part Two: Preparing the data file 4 Creating a data file and entering data 5 Screening and cleaning the data Part Three: Preliminary analyses 6 Descriptive statistics 7 Using graphs to describe and explore the data 8 Manipulating the data 9 Checking the reliability of a scale 10 Choosing the right statistic Part Four: Statistical techniques to e...
4,336 CitationsSource
#1Arne Güllich (TUK: Kaiserslautern University of Technology)H-Index: 12
ABSTRACTThe study examined developmental participation patterns of international top athletes. Pairs of 83 international medallists (including 38 Olympic/World Champions) and 83 non-medallists were matched by sport, age and gender. A questionnaire recorded their volume of organised (coach-led) practice/training in their respective main sport and in other sports through childhood, adolescence and adulthood, and also involvement in non-organised (peer-led) sport activity. Analyses revealed that th...
28 CitationsSource
#1Gennaro BocciaH-Index: 11
#2Alberto Rainoldi (UNITO: University of Turin)H-Index: 27
Last. Paolo Riccardo Brustio (UNITO: University of Turin)H-Index: 9
view all 3 authors...
Purpose Relative age effect (RAE) is a bias usually observed in young athletes and in academia, where participation is higher among those born early in the year. We aimed to determine RAE in undergraduate students of sport science.
4 CitationsSource
#1Andreas Votteler (University of Tübingen)H-Index: 3
#2Oliver Höner (University of Tübingen)H-Index: 12
Relative age effects (RAEs) describe an overrepresentation of youths born early within annual age cohorts. An understanding of how talent selection procedures cause RAE emergence in talent development programmes facilitates specific advice for their reduction. This cross-sectional and longitudinal study investigated the location of RAE differences between consecutive age categories and competition levels and RAE emergence through talent selection procedures. The sample comprised 35,390 male yout...
3 CitationsSource
#1Brooke N. Macnamara (Case Western Reserve University)H-Index: 11
#2David Moreau (University of Auckland)H-Index: 14
Last. David Z. Hambrick (MSU: Michigan State University)H-Index: 37
view all 3 authors...
Why are some people more skilled in complex domains than other people? According to one prominent view, individual differences in performance largely reflect individual differences in accumulated amount of deliberate practice. Here, we investigated the relationship between deliberate practice and performance in sports. Overall, deliberate practice accounted for 18% of the variance in sports performance. However, the contribution differed depending on skill level. Most important, deliberate pract...
66 CitationsSource
#1Tim Rees (BU: Bournemouth University)H-Index: 21
#2Lew Hardy (Bangor University)H-Index: 51
Last. Chelsea Warr (UK Sport)H-Index: 3
view all 9 authors...
The literature base regarding the development of sporting talent is extensive, and includes empirical articles, reviews, position papers, academic books, governing body documents, popular books, unpublished theses and anecdotal evidence, and contains numerous models of talent development. With such a varied body of work, the task for researchers, practitioners and policy makers of generating a clear understanding of what is known and what is thought to be true regarding the development of sporti...
93 CitationsSource
Youth sport involvement can lead to outcomes classified as the 3Ps: performance, participation and personal development. The 3Ps are central to youth sport systems aimed at providing quality experiences to participants. A challenge for countries and national governing bodies is structuring sport to simultaneously facilitate the achievement of excellence and participation or the 3Ps. To illustrate this challenge, consider deliberate practice, which is an important activity for performance improve...
48 CitationsSource
#1Manuel Hornig (TUK: Kaiserslautern University of Technology)H-Index: 1
#2Friedhelm Aust (University of Mainz)H-Index: 1
Last. Arne Güllich (TUK: Kaiserslautern University of Technology)H-Index: 12
view all 3 authors...
50 CitationsSource
#1Jean CôtéH-Index: 52
#2Karl EricksonH-Index: 12
7 CitationsSource
#1Melissa J. HopwoodH-Index: 1
2 CitationsSource
Cited By10
#1Cristina De Francisco (University of Murcia)H-Index: 2
Last. Constantino Arce (University of Santiago de Compostela)H-Index: 13
view all 4 authors...
The purpose of the present research was to analyze the mediating role of motivational regulation between the satisfaction of basic psychological needs and burnout and engagement in athletes. From different sports 1011 young Spanish athletes participated in the study. Participants completed several measurement instruments concerning: the Basic Needs Satisfaction in Sport Scale, Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire, Athlete Burnout Questionnaire and Athlete Engagement Questionnaire. The re...
#1Paul R. Ford (University of Brighton)H-Index: 21
#2Nicola J. Hodges (UBC: University of British Columbia)H-Index: 35
Last. A. Mark Williams (UofU: University of Utah)H-Index: 57
view all 8 authors...
We study the developmental and professional activities engaged in by 86 female adult soccer players from the senior national teams of Australia, Canada, England, Sweden, and the United States of America. Players completed the Participation History Questionnaire (PHQ) to elicit the amount and type of activities engaged in across their developmental and professional years, including milestones, soccer-specific activity and engagement in other sport activity. Greater specialisation than diversifica...
#1A. Mark Williams (UofU: University of Utah)H-Index: 57
#2Paul R. Ford (University of Brighton)H-Index: 21
Last. Barry Drust (University of Birmingham)H-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
At the turn of the millennium, a review paper was published in this journal on talent identification and development in soccer (Williams & Reilly, 2000). In the current paper, we assess progress ma...
#1Arne Güllich (BCU: Birmingham City University)
#2Robin Cronauer (BCU: Birmingham City University)
Last. Christopher Miller (BCU: Birmingham City University)
view all 5 authors...
The hypothesis that sport-specific skill learning is correlated with earlier childhood multi-sport practice experiences was empirically studied among youth soccer players. Fourteen youth soccer coa...
#1Justin S. DiSanti (ATSU: A.T. Still University)
#2Karl Erickson (MSU: Michigan State University)H-Index: 12
ABSTRACTThe examination of youth sport specialization and athlete participation pathways have been sustained lines of inquiry among multiple branches of the sport sciences. The common consensus in ...
#1Rachel L. Kennedy (UT: University of Tennessee)H-Index: 1
#2Jeffrey T. Fairbrother (UT: University of Tennessee)H-Index: 13
The deliberate practice framework was forwarded to account for the characteristics and developmental experiences of individuals who have acquired exceptional performance in any domain. This framework proposed that experts undergo an extensive acquisition period involving the accumulation of thousands of hours of deliberate practice while overcoming various constraints that serve as functional barriers to the achievement of expertise. Although the deliberate practice framework has been examined i...
1 CitationsSource
#1David T. Hendry (Northumbria University)H-Index: 3
#2A. Mark Williams (UofU: University of Utah)H-Index: 57
Last. Nicola J. Hodges (Northumbria University)H-Index: 35
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Objectives Our aim was to assess the developmental activities that best define elite players in female soccer in one of the top nations for female soccer in the world. In addition to measurement of career practice hours in soccer and other sports, we quantified hours engaged in activities judged high in challenge. Design and Methods Adult National-team (n = 21) and lesser-skilled Varsity (n = 24) female soccer players in Canada provided career estimates of hours in soccer and other spor...
2 CitationsSource
#1Arne Güllich (TUK: Kaiserslautern University of Technology)H-Index: 12
ABSTRACTThe study examined the “micro-structure” of football practice and the “macro-structure” of participation history of female professional football players. Participants were 29 German 1st league (Bundesliga) players, 14 of whom played on the senior national team (Olympic Champion in 2016). A questionnaire recorded the players’ positions, proportions of physical conditioning, drill-type skill exercises and playing forms within coach-led football practice, and the volume of coach-led practic...
5 CitationsSource
#1Michael Barth (University of Innsbruck)H-Index: 1
#2Eike Emrich (Saarland University)H-Index: 16
Last. Arne Güllich (TUK: Kaiserslautern University of Technology)H-Index: 12
view all 3 authors...
The question which nature and scope of developmental participation patterns lead to international senior-level success has been controversially discussed in the literature for many years. The prese...
1 CitationsSource
#1David T. Hendry (UBC: University of British Columbia)H-Index: 3
#2A. Mark Williams (UofU: University of Utah)H-Index: 57
Last. Nicola J. Hodges (UBC: University of British Columbia)H-Index: 35
view all 3 authors...
ABSTRACTElite soccer players (~15 yr) from professional academies in the UK were rated on technical, tactical, physical and creative skills by coaches at time 1 (T1). Players estimated accumulated hours in soccer practice (coach-led activities) and play (self-led activities) during childhood. Coach-ratings were again collected 2.5 yr later (T2) for players that received a professional contract (~17 yr). Adult-professional status was determined at T3 (~ 20 yr). Skill ratings distinguished across ...
9 CitationsSource