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A broader phenotype of persistence emerges from individual differences in response to extinction

Published on Oct 1, 2018in Psychonomic Bulletin & Review3.70
· DOI :10.3758/s13423-017-1402-9
Bruno Sauce6
Estimated H-index: 6
(RU: Rutgers University),
Christopher Wass9
Estimated H-index: 9
(RU: Rutgers University)
+ 1 AuthorsLouis D. Matzel30
Estimated H-index: 30
(RU: Rutgers University)
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Abstract
The typical practice of averaging group performance during extinction gives the impression that responding declines gradually and homogeneously. However, previous studies of extinction in human infants have shown that some individuals persist in responding, whereas others abruptly cease responding. As predicted by theories of control, the infants who quickly resign typically display signs of sadness and despair when the expected reward is omitted. Using genetically diverse mice, here we observed a similar pattern of individual differences and the associated phenotypes. After learning to approach a food reward, upon extinction, some animals rapidly abandoned approach to the goal box, whereas other animals persisted in entering and searching the goal box. Interestingly, the persistent mice were slower to “give up” when confined to an inescapable pool of water (a test asserted to be indicative of susceptibility to depression) and exhibited a more extensive pattern of search for omitted rewards. Thus, extinction reveals a continuum in persistence, in which low values might reflect a susceptibility to the negative effects of stress and might predispose individuals to depression.
  • References (32)
  • Citations (1)
Cite
References32
Newest
Published on May 1, 2017in Learning & Memory2.37
Gabrielle King2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UNSW: University of New South Wales),
Elliot Scott2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UNSW: University of New South Wales)
+ 1 AuthorsRick Richardson41
Estimated H-index: 41
(UNSW: University of New South Wales)
Published on Oct 1, 2015in Behavioural Brain Research2.77
Bruno Sauce6
Estimated H-index: 6
(RU: Rutgers University),
Christopher Wass9
Estimated H-index: 9
(RU: Rutgers University)
+ 3 AuthorsLouis D. Matzel30
Estimated H-index: 30
(RU: Rutgers University)
Abstract The L1CAM (L1) gene encodes a cell adhesion molecule that contributes to several important processes in the developing and adult nervous system, including neuronal migration, survival, and plasticity. In humans and mice, mutations in the X chromosome-linked gene L1 cause severe neurological defects in males. L1 heterozygous female mice with one functional copy of the L1 gene show complex morphological features that are different from L1 fully-deficient and wild-type littermate mice. How...
Published on Jan 1, 2015in Developmental Psychology3.34
Michael Lewis77
Estimated H-index: 77
,
Margaret Wolan Sullivan29
Estimated H-index: 29
,
Hillary Mi-Sung Kim1
Estimated H-index: 1
In 2 separate longitudinal studies, infants and their mothers were seen in 3 longitudinal visits. At 2 months, they were observed in free play where mothers' contingency toward their infants was obtained. At 5 months, a goal blockage response was produced when a previously learned contingent response became ineffective in producing an interesting event. Infants' emotional responses, in particular anger and sad facial expressions, were observed. At 2 years, toddlers' persistence at play was asses...
Mauricio R. Papini28
Estimated H-index: 28
(TCU: Texas Christian University)
This review focuses on reward-schedule effects, a family of learning phenomena involving surprising devaluations in reward quality or quantity (as in incentive contrast), and reward omissions (as in appetitive extinction), as studied in three taxonomic groups of vertebrates: mammals, birds, and amphibians. The largest database of dependable data comes from research with mammals in general, and with rats in particular. These experiments show a variety of behavioral adjustments to situations invol...
Published on Dec 23, 2013in PLOS ONE2.78
Becca Franks11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Columbia University),
Frances A. Champagne51
Estimated H-index: 51
(Columbia University),
E. Tory Higgins84
Estimated H-index: 84
(Columbia University)
We propose that a comparative approach to well-being could be the key to understanding ‘the good life.’ Inspired by current theories of human well-being and animal welfare, we designed a novel test of exploration behavior. Environmentally and socially enriched Long-Evans female rats (N=60) were trained in four simultaneously presented arms of an eight-arm radial-maze. They learned to expect successes in two arms and failures in the other two. After training, 20 animals remained in enriched housi...
Published on Oct 15, 2013in Learning & Memory2.37
Christopher Wass9
Estimated H-index: 9
(RU: Rutgers University),
Alessandro Pizzo2
Estimated H-index: 2
(RU: Rutgers University)
+ 5 AuthorsLouis D. Matzel30
Estimated H-index: 30
(RU: Rutgers University)
A common source of variance (i.e., “general intelligence”) underlies an individual's performance across diverse tests of cognitive ability, and evidence indicates that the processing efficacy of working memory may serve as one such source of common variance. One component of working memory, selective attention, has been reported to co-vary with general intelligence, and dopamine D1 signaling in prefrontal cortex can modulate attentional abilities. Based on their aggregate performance across five...
Published on Feb 1, 2012in Journal of Affective Disorders4.08
C. Robert Cloninger81
Estimated H-index: 81
(WashU: Washington University in St. Louis),
Ada H. Zohar30
Estimated H-index: 30
(Ruppin Academic Center)
+ 1 AuthorsDana Dahan1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Ariel University)
Abstract Background The personality trait of Persistence is highly valued by conscientious overachievers, but it has both psychological costs and benefits. The interactions among multiple personality factors influencing the development of mood and anxiety disorders have been confounded in prior clinical samples, but can be disentangled in terms of their underlying brain circuitry and influence on perception of emotional stimuli. Methods 285 individuals who represented the full range of personali...
Published on Apr 26, 2011in Learning & Memory2.37
Louis D. Matzel30
Estimated H-index: 30
,
Kenneth Light13
Estimated H-index: 13
+ 4 AuthorsStefan Kolata15
Estimated H-index: 15
Learning, attentional, and perseverative deficits are characteristic of cognitive aging. In this study, genetically diverse CD-1 mice underwent longitudinal training in a task asserted to tax working memory capacity and its dependence on selective attention. Beginning at 3 mo of age, animals were trained for 12 d to perform in a dual radial-arm maze task that required the mice to remember and operate on two sets of overlapping guidance (spatial) cues. As previously reported, this training result...
Published on Apr 1, 2011in Current protocols in protein science
Roger D. Porsolt26
Estimated H-index: 26
,
Geneviève Brossard2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 1 AuthorsSylvain Roux12
Estimated H-index: 12
The development of antidepressants requires simple rodent behavioral tests for initial screening before undertaking more complex preclinical tests and clinical evaluation. Presented in the unit are two widely used screening tests used for antidepressants, the forced swim (also termed behavioral despair) test in the rat and mouse, and the tail suspension test in the mouse. These tests have good predictive validity and allow rapid and economical detection of substances with potential antidepressan...
Published on Mar 6, 2009in PLOS ONE2.78
Kimberly A. Aldinger16
Estimated H-index: 16
(U of C: University of Chicago),
Greta Sokoloff22
Estimated H-index: 22
(U of C: University of Chicago)
+ 2 AuthorsKathleen J. Millen31
Estimated H-index: 31
(U of C: University of Chicago)
Outbred laboratory mouse populations are widely used in biomedical research. Since little is known about the degree of genetic variation present in these populations, they are not widely used for genetic studies. Commercially available outbred CD-1 mice are drawn from an extremely large breeding population that has accumulated many recombination events, which is desirable for genome-wide association studies. We therefore examined the degree of genome-wide variation within CD-1 mice to investigat...
Cited By1
Newest
Published on Sep 26, 2018in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B6.14
Enrico Sorato3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Linköping University),
Josefina Zidar7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Linköping University)
+ 2 AuthorsHanne Løvlie18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Linköping University)
Natural selection can act on between-individual variation in cognitive abilities, yet evolutionary responses depend on the presence of underlying genetic variation. It is, therefore, crucial to determine the relative extent of genetic versus environmental control of these among-individual differences in cognitive traits to understand their causes and evolutionary potential. We investigated heritability of associative learning performance and of a cognitive judgement bias (optimism), as well as t...
View next paperStress increases behavioral resistance to extinction