Match!

Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines

Published on Jul 25, 2017in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America9.58
· DOI :10.1073/pnas.1704949114
Gerardo Ceballos41
Estimated H-index: 41
(UNAM: National Autonomous University of Mexico),
Paul R. Ehrlich98
Estimated H-index: 98
(Stanford University),
Rodolfo Dirzo53
Estimated H-index: 53
(Stanford University)
View in Source
Abstract
The population extinction pulse we describe here shows, from a quantitative viewpoint, that Earth’s sixth mass extinction is more severe than perceived when looking exclusively at species extinctions. Therefore, humanity needs to address anthropogenic population extirpation and decimation immediately. That conclusion is based on analyses of the numbers and degrees of range contraction (indicative of population shrinkage and/or population extinctions according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature) using a sample of 27,600 vertebrate species, and on a more detailed analysis documenting the population extinctions between 1900 and 2015 in 177 mammal species. We find that the rate of population loss in terrestrial vertebrates is extremely high—even in “species of low concern.” In our sample, comprising nearly half of known vertebrate species, 32% (8,851/27,600) are decreasing; that is, they have decreased in population size and range. In the 177 mammals for which we have detailed data, all have lost 30% or more of their geographic ranges and more than 40% of the species have experienced severe population declines (>80% range shrinkage). Our data indicate that beyond global species extinctions Earth is experiencing a huge episode of population declines and extirpations, which will have negative cascading consequences on ecosystem functioning and services vital to sustaining civilization. We describe this as a “biological annihilation” to highlight the current magnitude of Earth’s ongoing sixth major extinction event.
Figures & Tables
  • References (48)
  • Citations (339)
References48
Newest
#1A. Townsend Peterson (KU: University of Kansas)H-Index: 81
#2Adolfo G. Navarro-Sigüenza (UNAM: National Autonomous University of Mexico)H-Index: 27
Last.Alejandro Gordillo (UNAM: National Autonomous University of Mexico)H-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
21 CitationsSource
#1Sarah M. Durant (UCL: University College London)H-Index: 31
#2Nick Mitchell (ZSL: Zoological Society of London)H-Index: 13
Last.Kim D. Young-Overton (Panthera Corporation)H-Index: 2
view all 54 authors...
62 CitationsSource
77 CitationsSource
#2David D. Ackerly (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 62
Last.Philip A. Townsend (UW: University of Wisconsin-Madison)H-Index: 35
view all 4 authors...
20 CitationsSource
#1Julian FennessyH-Index: 6
#2Tobias BidonH-Index: 8
Last.Axel Janke (Goethe University Frankfurt)H-Index: 43
view all 9 authors...
68 CitationsSource
#1Sean L. MaxwellH-Index: 10
#2Richard A. FullerH-Index: 50
Last.James E. M. WatsonH-Index: 51
view all 4 authors...
316 CitationsSource
#1Jeremy A. Thomas (University of Oxford)H-Index: 39
32 CitationsSource
#1Miguel Martínez-Ramos (UNAM: National Autonomous University of Mexico)H-Index: 49
#2Iván A. Ortiz-Rodríguez (UNAM: National Autonomous University of Mexico)H-Index: 1
Last.José Sarukhán (UNAM: National Autonomous University of Mexico)H-Index: 27
view all 5 authors...
27 CitationsSource
#1Hans ter Steege (Naturalis)H-Index: 28
#2Nigel C. A. Pitman (Duke University)H-Index: 40
Last.Luis Valenzuela Gamarra (Missouri Botanical Garden)H-Index: 9
view all 158 authors...
47 CitationsSource
#1Gerardo CeballosH-Index: 41
#2Paul R. EhrlichH-Index: 98
Last.Anne H. EhrlichH-Index: 24
view all 3 authors...
12 Citations
Cited By339
Newest
#1Sarah J. Lehnert (Fisheries and Oceans Canada)H-Index: 3
#2Tony Kess (Fisheries and Oceans Canada)H-Index: 1
Last.Ian Bradbury (Dal: Dalhousie University)H-Index: 37
view all 10 authors...
Source
#1David J. Duffy (Whitney Laboratory for Marine Bioscience)H-Index: 10
#2Mark Q. Martindale (Whitney Laboratory for Marine Bioscience)H-Index: 59
Source
#1Corey J. A. Bradshaw (Flinders University)H-Index: 59
#2Enrico Di Minin (UKZN: University of KwaZulu-Natal)H-Index: 19
1 CitationsSource
#1Alexandre Millon (AMU: Aix-Marseille University)H-Index: 14
#2Xavier Lambin (Aberd.: University of Aberdeen)H-Index: 48
Last.Michael Schaub (Swiss Ornithological Institute)H-Index: 43
view all 4 authors...
Source
#1Elizabeth R. Lawrence (Concordia University)H-Index: 2
#2Javiera N. Benavente (Concordia University)H-Index: 1
Last.Dylan J. Fraser (Concordia University)H-Index: 26
view all 11 authors...
1 CitationsSource
#1Alaa Eldin Soultan (MPG: Max Planck Society)H-Index: 4
#2Martin Wikelski (MPG: Max Planck Society)H-Index: 70
Last.Kamran Safi (MPG: Max Planck Society)H-Index: 29
view all 3 authors...
1 CitationsSource
#1Jan Christian Habel (TUM: Technische Universität München)H-Index: 2
#2Andreas H. SegererH-Index: 1
Last.Thomas Schmitt (MLU: Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg)H-Index: 27
view all 4 authors...
1 CitationsSource
#1Nina B. Dähler (UZH: University of Zurich)
#2Rolf Holderegger (ETH Zurich)H-Index: 43
Last.Ariel Bergamini (WSL: Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research)H-Index: 18
view all 4 authors...
Source
#1Simon Veron (University of Paris)H-Index: 3
#2Maud Mouchet (University of Paris)H-Index: 2
Last.Roseli Pellens (University of Paris)H-Index: 12
view all 5 authors...
Source
#2Matheus S. Lima-Ribeiro (UFG: Universidade Federal de Goiás)H-Index: 17
view all 11 authors...
Source