Learning approach and its relationship to type of media use and frequency of media multitasking

Published on Jul 1, 2019in Active Learning in Higher Education
· DOI :10.1177/1469787417735612
Anna S. Law12
Estimated H-index: 12
(LJMU: Liverpool John Moores University),
Rosemary Stock1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UWL: University of West London)
Research has demonstrated that learning is impaired if students multitask with media while encountering new information. However, some have gone further, and suggested that media-multitasking (as a general activity) may have a negative impact on cognitive control processes. If this were the case, students who are heavy media-multitaskers generally would have difficulties with goal-directed behaviour, and organising their time effectively to meet their learning goals. The study described here explored links between total levels of self-reported media-multitasking, academic achievement and approaches to learning. Well-established measures of media-multitasking and learning approach were given to 307 students. Total levels of media-multitasking did not relate to either learning approach or academic achievement. However, surface learning approach related negatively to academic achievement, and time spent engaging with printed media. Deep learning approach was positively related to time spent using printed media, email and other computer applications. These findings suggest that patterns of media use differ according to current learning approach, and that these patterns may be more relevant for learning than overall tendency to media-multitask.
Figures & Tables
  • References (51)
  • Citations (1)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
15 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
#1Mona Moisala (UH: University of Helsinki)H-Index: 5
#2Viljami Salmela (UH: University of Helsinki)H-Index: 8
Last. Kimmo Alho (Aalto University)H-Index: 75
view all 10 authors...
Abstract The current generation of young people indulges in more media multitasking behavior (e.g., instant messaging while watching videos) in their everyday lives than older generations. Concerns have been raised about how this might affect their attentional functioning, as previous studies have indicated that extensive media multitasking in everyday life may be associated with decreased attentional control. In the current study, 149 adolescents and young adults (aged 13–24 years) performed sp...
38 CitationsSource
#1Yiu-Kong Chan (HKU: University of Hong Kong)H-Index: 1
Learning effectiveness requires an understanding of the relationship among extracurricular activities, learning approach and academic performance and, it is argued, this helps educators develop techniques designed to enrich learning effectiveness. Biggs’ Presage–Process–Product model on student learning has identified the relationship among individual difference, learning approaches and academic achievement in higher education. Studies have typically revealed that the deep approach is positively...
9 CitationsSource
#1Matthew S. CainH-Index: 19
#2Julia A. Leonard (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 12
Last. Amy S. Finn (U of T: University of Toronto)H-Index: 14
view all 4 authors...
Media use has been on the rise in adolescents overall, and in particular, the amount of media multitasking—multiple media consumed simultaneously, such as having a text message conversation while watching TV—has been increasing. In adults, heavy media multitasking has been linked with poorer performance on a number of laboratory measures of cognition, but no relationship has yet been established between media-multitasking behavior and real-world outcomes. Examining individual differences across ...
41 CitationsSource
#1Melina R. Uncapher (Stanford University)H-Index: 19
#2Monica K. Thieu (Stanford University)H-Index: 2
Last. Anthony D. Wagner (Stanford University)H-Index: 76
view all 3 authors...
Increasing access to media in the 21st century has led to a rapid rise in the prevalence of media multitasking (simultaneous use of multiple media streams). Such behavior is associated with various cognitive differences, such as difficulty filtering distracting information and increased trait impulsivity. Given the rise in media multitasking by children, adolescents, and adults, a full understanding of the cognitive profile of media multitaskers is imperative. Here we investigated the relationsh...
45 CitationsSource
#1Robert A. Ellis (USYD: University of Sydney)H-Index: 27
There is variation in the university student experience of learning. Prior research has shown that factors that shape this include student characteristics, the learning context, student perceptions of that context and approaches to learning and their learning outcomes. In blended contexts, there is a need to identify variables which can explain why some students are more successful than others in order to shed light on why students in the same course completing the same activities in the same te...
18 CitationsSource
#1Saraswathi BellurH-Index: 14
#2Kristine L. NowakH-Index: 16
Last. Kyle S. HullH-Index: 4
view all 3 authors...
Young adults, especially college students, are consistently engaging in multiple tasks simultaneously. They are texting, reading, and using social media while studying and attending class. While there are a variety of contexts and relationships likely influenced by this, the present research project examines the influence of media multitasking in the context of students in technology-saturated classrooms and how this is impacting learning and academic performance. A survey of college students ex...
39 CitationsSource
#1Saraswathi Bellur (UConn: University of Connecticut)H-Index: 14
#2Kristine L. Nowak (UConn: University of Connecticut)H-Index: 16
Last. Kyle S. Hull (Aquinas College)H-Index: 4
view all 3 authors...
Data highlight the prevalence of multitasking both within and outside classroom.In-class multitasking was found to be negatively predictive of current college GPA.Multitasking during homework increases time spent studying outside class.Texting emerged as a dominant multitasking activity within and outside classroom.Implications for technology use, practices and policies in academia are discussed. Young adults, especially college students, are consistently engaging in multiple tasks simultaneousl...
48 CitationsSource
#1Snezhanka Kazakova (UGent: Ghent University)H-Index: 3
#2Verolien Cauberghe (UGent: Ghent University)H-Index: 15
Last. Patrick De Pelsmacker (University of Antwerp)H-Index: 38
view all 4 authors...
Media multitasking represents an important aspect of the recent evolution in media consumption habits. While some experimental research exists, it has primarily focused on the detrimental effects of multitasking on task performance. We go a step further by examining the impact of media multitasking on information processing style. Study I demonstrates that media multitasking, compared to sequential media consumption, leads to a more local perceptual processing style. Furthermore, the frequency o...
15 CitationsSource
#1Pedro Cardoso-Leite (University of Geneva)H-Index: 9
#2C. Shawn Green (UW: University of Wisconsin-Madison)H-Index: 23
Last. Daphne Bavelier (UR: University of Rochester)H-Index: 55
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Interest in multitasking has risen substantially over the past decade, both in the scientific community and the population at large. Large-scale surveys show that multitasking has not only become ubiquitous among adults, but is also increasingly invading the lives of young children. New technological devices promote multitasking allowing for the consumption of multiple types of media at the same time. And while some have argued that such multitasking represents a potential boon to produ...
15 CitationsSource
#1Brandon C. W. Ralph (UW: University of Waterloo)H-Index: 9
#2David R. Thomson (UW: University of Waterloo)H-Index: 13
Last. Daniel Smilek (UW: University of Waterloo)H-Index: 42
view all 5 authors...
In a series of four studies, self-reported media multitasking (using the media multitasking index; MMI) and general sustained-attention ability, through performance on three sustained-attention tasks: the metronome response task (MRT), the sustained-attention-to-response task (SART), and a vigilance task (here, a modified version of the SART). In Study 1, we found that higher reports of media multitasking were associated with increased response variability (i.e., poor performance) on the MRT. Ho...
29 CitationsSource
Cited By1
#1Jerry Chih-Yuan Sun (NCTU: National Chiao Tung University)H-Index: 10
#2Kelly Yi-Chuan Hsu (NCTU: National Chiao Tung University)H-Index: 1
Abstract While computer science is crucial to today's world, the course requirements remain high and learners' self-efficacy remains low. This study applied eye-tracking devices to instantly identify learners' difficulties and provide them with tips and help them enhance their self-efficacy. The influence of the eye-tracking scaffolding system on students' self-efficacy and performance for learning the C programming language was investigated. Seventy-seven senior high school participants were ra...
2 CitationsSource