Leadership Process Models: A Review and Synthesis:
In organizational research, studying “processes” is important for uncovering and understanding the underlying causal mechanisms in a predictor-mediator-outcome logic. Processes answer “how” and “why” questions and provide more complete explanations about phenomena. Our focus in this review is on studies of leadership processes, which we systematically analyze to report on the state of the science. In doing so, we present a two-dimensional target-centric taxonomy to integrate previous research: The taxonomy distinguishes the target’s level (i.e., individual follower, team, organizational, and extraorganizational) as well as the type of leadership processes that affect either the target’s development or leverage of resources. Our review indicates that the predominantly studied leadership “meta” process model looks at the effect of leader traits or behaviors on performance-related outcomes through cognitive, affective, or behavioral leveraging factors. This “meta” model points to several important and unders...
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