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Structural Basis for Inhibitor-Induced Aggregation of HIV Integrase.

Published on Dec 9, 2016in PLOS Biology8.386
· DOI :10.1371/journal.pbio.1002584
Kushol Gupta19
Estimated H-index: 19
(UPenn: University of Pennsylvania),
Vesa Turkki1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UPenn: University of Pennsylvania)
+ 11 AuthorsFrederic D. Bushman101
Estimated H-index: 101
(UPenn: University of Pennsylvania)
Abstract
The allosteric inhibitors of integrase (termed ALLINIs) interfere with HIV replication by binding to the viral-encoded integrase (IN) protein. Surprisingly, ALLINIs interfere not with DNA integration but with viral particle assembly late during HIV replication. To investigate the ALLINI inhibitory mechanism, we crystallized full-length HIV-1 IN bound to the ALLINI GSK1264 and determined the structure of the complex at 4.4 A resolution. The structure shows GSK1264 buried between the IN C-terminal domain (CTD) and the catalytic core domain. In the crystal lattice, the interacting domains are contributed by two different dimers so that IN forms an open polymer mediated by inhibitor-bridged contacts; the N-terminal domains do not participate and are structurally disordered. Engineered amino acid substitutions at the inhibitor interface blocked ALLINI-induced multimerization. HIV escape mutants with reduced sensitivity to ALLINIs commonly altered amino acids at or near the inhibitor-bound interface, and these substitutions also diminished IN multimerization. We propose that ALLINIs inhibit particle assembly by stimulating inappropriate polymerization of IN via interactions between the catalytic core domain and the CTD and that understanding the interface involved offers new routes to inhibitor optimization.
  • References (59)
  • Citations (15)
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References59
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#1Juan Fontana (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 16
#2Kellie A. Jurado (Harvard University)H-Index: 6
Last. Alasdair C. Steven (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 85
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During virion maturation, HIV-1 capsid protein assembles into a conical core containing the viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complex, thought to be composed mainly of the viral RNA and nucleocapsid protein (NC). After infection, the viral RNA is reverse transcribed into double-stranded DNA, which is then incorporated into host chromosomes by integrase (IN) catalysis. Certain IN mutations (class II) and antiviral drugs (allosteric IN inhibitors [ALLINIs]) adversely affect maturation, resulting in v...
34 CitationsSource
#1Alison Slaughter (OSU: Ohio State University)H-Index: 10
#2Kellie A. Jurado (Harvard University)H-Index: 6
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Background: Allosteric HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors (ALLINIs) are an important new class of anti-HIV-1 agents. ALLINIs bind at the IN catalytic core domain (CCD) dimer interface occupying the principal binding pocket of its cellular cofactor LEDGF/p75. Consequently, ALLINIs inhibit HIV-1 IN interaction with LEDGF/p75 as well as promote aberrant IN multimerization. Selection of viral strains emerging under the inhibitor pressure has revealed mutations at the IN dimer interface near the inhibit...
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#2Venkatasubramanian Dharmarajan (Scripps Research Institute)H-Index: 14
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Allosteric HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors (ALLINIs) are a promising class of antiretroviral agents for clinical development. Although ALLINIs promote aberrant IN multimerization and inhibit IN interaction with its cellular cofactor LEDGF/p75 with comparable potencies in vitro, their primary mechanism of action in infected cells is through inducing aberrant multimerization of IN. Crystal structures have shown that ALLINIs bind at the IN catalytic core domain dimer interface and bridge two intera...
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ABSTRACT BI 224436 is an HIV-1 integrase inhibitor with effective antiviral activity that acts through a mechanism that is distinct from that of integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs). This 3-quinolineacetic acid derivative series was identified using an enzymatic integrase long terminal repeat (LTR) DNA 3′-processing assay. A combination of medicinal chemistry, parallel synthesis, and structure-guided drug design led to the identification of BI 224436 as a candidate for preclinical profi...
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The quinoline-based allosteric HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors (ALLINIs) are promising candidates for clinically useful antiviral agents. Studies using these compounds have highlighted the role of IN in both early and late stages of virus replication. However, dissecting the exact mechanism of action of the quinoline-based ALLINIs has been complicated by the multifunctional nature of these inhibitors because they both inhibit IN binding with its cofactor LEDGF/p75 and promote aberrant IN multime...
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HIV-1 integrase (IN) is the target for two classes of antiretrovirals: i) the integrase strand-transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) and ii) the non-catalytic site integrase inhibitors (NCINIs). NCINIs bind at the IN dimer interface and are thought to interfere primarily with viral DNA (vDNA) integration in the target cell by blocking IN-vDNA assembly as well as the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction. Herein we show that treatment of virus-producing cells, but not of mature virions or target cells, drives NCINI an...
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We report the free energy landscape and thermodynamics of the protein-protein association responsible for the drug-induced multimerization of HIV-1 integrase (IN). Allosteric HIV-1 integrase inhibitors (ALLINIs) promote aberrant IN multimerization by bridging IN-IN intermolecular interactions. However, the thermodynamic driving forces and kinetics of the multimerization remain largely unknown. Here we explore the early steps in the IN multimerization by using umbrella sampling and unbiased molec...
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