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Sex differences in the adolescent brain and body: Findings from the saguenay youth study

Published on Jan 2, 2017in Journal of Neuroscience Research4.14
· DOI :10.1002/jnr.23825
Tomáš Paus82
Estimated H-index: 82
(MIND Institute),
Angelita Pui-Yee Wong3
Estimated H-index: 3
(U of T: University of Toronto)
+ 1 AuthorsZdenka Pausova41
Estimated H-index: 41
(U of T: University of Toronto)
Cite
Abstract
This Mini-Review describes sex differences in 66 quantitative characteristics of the brain and body measured in a community-based sample of 1,024 adolescents 12–18 years of age, members of the Saguenay Youth Study. Using an extensive phenotyping protocol, we have obtained measures in a number of domains, including brain structure, cognition, mental health, substance use, body composition, metabolism, cardiovascular reactivity, and life style. For each measure, we provide estimates of effect size (Cohen's d) and sex-specific correlations with age (Pearson R). In total 59 of the 66 characteristics showed sex differences (at a nominal P < 0.05), with small (32), medium-sized (13), and large (11) effects. Some, but not all, of these sex differences increase during adolescence; this appears to be the case mostly for anatomical and physiological measures. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • References (36)
  • Citations (13)
Cite
References36
Newest
Published on Mar 27, 2016in International Journal of Epidemiology7.34
Zdenka Pausova41
Estimated H-index: 41
,
Tomáš Paus82
Estimated H-index: 82
(MIND Institute)
+ 8 AuthorsJean R. Séguin43
Estimated H-index: 43
(UdeM: Université de Montréal)
The Saguenay Youth Study (SYS) is a two-generational study of adolescents and their parents (n = 1029 adolescents and 962 parents) aimed at investigating the aetiology, early stages and trans-generational trajectories of common cardiometabolic and brain diseases. The ultimate goal of this study is to identify effective means for increasing healthy life expectancy. The cohort was recruited from the genetic founder population of the Saguenay Lac St Jean region of Quebec, Canada. The participants u...
Published on Mar 1, 2016in Brain Structure & Function3.62
Melissa M. Pangelinan8
Estimated H-index: 8
,
LeonardGabriel34
Estimated H-index: 34
(McGill University)
+ 5 AuthorsTomáš Paus82
Estimated H-index: 82
(U of T: University of Toronto)
Some of the known sex differences in white matter emerge during adolescence. Here, we replicate and extend our previous findings of sex differences in the structure of the corticospinal tract (Perrin et al. 2009; Herve et al. 2009). In a large normative sample of adolescents, we observed age × sex interactions in the signal intensity of T1-weighted (T1W) images (n = 941) and in magnetization transfer ratio (MTR; n = 761); both features were inversely associated with age in males but not in femal...
Published on Nov 1, 2015in Brain Structure & Function3.62
Klára Marečková5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Nottingham),
M. Mallar Chakravarty42
Estimated H-index: 42
(U of T: University of Toronto)
+ 8 AuthorsZdenka Pausova41
Estimated H-index: 41
(UdeM: Université de Montréal)
We used magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained in same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins (n = 119, 8 years of age) to study possible effects of prenatal androgens on craniofacial features. Using a principal component analysis of 19 craniofacial landmarks placed on the MR images, we identified a principal component capturing craniofacial features that distinguished females with a presumed differential exposure to prenatal androgens by virtue of having a male (vs. a female) co-twin (Cohen’s d ...
Published on Oct 1, 2015in JAMA Psychiatry15.92
Leon French14
Estimated H-index: 14
,
Courtney Gray1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 35 AuthorsEric Artiges32
Estimated H-index: 32
Importance Cannabis use during adolescence is known to increase the risk for schizophrenia in men. Sex differences in the dynamics of brain maturation during adolescence may be of particular importance with regard to vulnerability of the male brain to cannabis exposure. Objective To evaluate whether the association between cannabis use and cortical maturation in adolescents is moderated by a polygenic risk score for schizophrenia. Design, Setting, and Participants Observation of 3 population-bas...
Published on Jul 1, 2015in NeuroImage5.81
M. Pesaresi2
Estimated H-index: 2
(U of T: University of Toronto),
R. Soon-Shiong1
Estimated H-index: 1
(U of T: University of Toronto)
+ 3 AuthorsTomáš Paus82
Estimated H-index: 82
(U of T: University of Toronto)
Abstract Testosterone is a sex hormone involved in brain maturation via multiple molecular mechanisms. Previous human studies described age-related changes in the overall volume and structural properties of white matter during male puberty. Based on this work, we have proposed that testosterone may induce a radial growth of the axon and, possibly, modulate axonal transport. In order to determine whether this is the case we have used two different experimental approaches. With electron microscopy...
Published on Feb 1, 2015in Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience4.92
Tomáš Paus82
Estimated H-index: 82
(U of T: University of Toronto),
Zdenka Pausova41
Estimated H-index: 41
(U of T: University of Toronto)
+ 4 AuthorsLouis Richer30
Estimated H-index: 30
(Université du Québec)
This paper provides an overview of the Saguenay Youth Study (SYS) and its parental arm. The overarching goal of this effort is to develop trans-generational models of developmental cascades contributing to the emergence of common chronic disorders, such as depression, addictions, dementia and cardio-metabolic diseases. Over the past 10 years, we have acquired detailed brain and cardio-metabolic phenotypes, and genome-wide genotypes, in 1029 adolescents recruited in a population with a known gene...
Published on Sep 30, 2014in PLOS ONE2.78
Ammar Khairullah2
Estimated H-index: 2
(U of T: University of Toronto),
Laura Cousino Klein26
Estimated H-index: 26
(PSU: Pennsylvania State University)
+ 4 AuthorsTomáš Paus82
Estimated H-index: 82
(U of T: University of Toronto)
Purpose Pubertal dynamics plays an important role in physical and psychological development of children and adolescents. We aim to provide reference ranges of plasma testosterone in a large longitudinal sample. Furthermore, we describe a measure of testosterone trajectories during adolescence that can be used in future investigations of development. Methods We carried out longitudinal measurements of plasma testosterone in 2,216 samples obtained from 513 males (9 to 17 years of age) from the Avo...
Published on Jan 1, 2014in Trends in Cognitive Sciences16.17
David I. Miller10
Estimated H-index: 10
(NU: Northwestern University),
Diane F. Halpern38
Estimated H-index: 38
(CMC: Claremont McKenna College)
Surprising new findings indicate that many conclusions about sex differences and similarities in cognitive abilities need to be reexamined. Cognitive sex differences are changing, decreasing for some tasks whereas remaining stable or increasing for other tasks. Some sex differences are detected in infancy, but the data are complex and depend on task characteristics. Diverse disciplines have revolutionized our understanding of why these differences exist. For instance, fraternal-twin studies alig...
Published on Oct 1, 2013in International Journal of Obesity4.51
Deborah H. Schwartz6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
LeonardGabriel34
Estimated H-index: 34
+ 5 AuthorsTomáš Paus82
Estimated H-index: 82
Background Obesity, a major risk factor for cardiometabolic disease, is associated with lower cognitive performance from childhood to senescence, especially on tasks of executive function. In the cardiovascular domain, fat stored viscerally rather than elsewhere in the body carries particularly high risk. It is unknown whether this is also true in case of obesity-cognition relationships. The aim of this study is to assess the cross-sectional relationship between visceral fat (VF) and cognitive p...
Published on Mar 1, 2013in Human Molecular Genetics4.54
Melkaye G. Melka5
Estimated H-index: 5
(U of T: University of Toronto),
Jesse Gillis23
Estimated H-index: 23
(UBC: University of British Columbia)
+ 33 AuthorsTobias Banaschewski61
Estimated H-index: 61
Genetic variations in fat mass- and obesity (FTO)-associated gene, a well-replicated gene locus of obesity, appear to be associated also with reduced regional brain volumes in elderly. Here, we examined whether FTO is associated with total brain volume in adolescence, thus exploring possible developmental effects of FTO. We studied a population-based sample of 598 adolescents recruited from the French Canadian founder population in whom we measured brain volume by magnetic resonance imaging. Tot...
Cited By13
Newest
Published on Sep 1, 2019in Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety4.53
Ran Li1
Estimated H-index: 1
(ZJNU: Zhejiang Chinese Medical University),
Xilu Wang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Anhui Medical University)
+ 7 AuthorsDe-Xiang Xu31
Estimated H-index: 31
(Anhui Medical University)
Abstract 1-Nitropyrene (1-NP), a typical nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is widely distributed in the environment and is well known for its mutagenic effects. Recently, we found that gestational 1-NP exposure induced fetal growth restriction. In this study, we further evaluated the effect of in utero 1-NP exposure on postnatal growth and neurobehavioral development in the offspring. Pregnant mice were administered with 1-NP (10 μg/kg) by gavage daily in late pregnancy (GD13-GD17). The ...
Published on Dec 28, 2018in American Journal of Medical Genetics
Christopher Hübel2
Estimated H-index: 2
(KI: Karolinska Institutet),
Héléna A. Gaspar14
Estimated H-index: 14
(NIHR: National Institute for Health Research)
+ 11 AuthorsTsegaselassie Workalemahu1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NIH: National Institutes of Health)
Published on Mar 1, 2019in Journal of Research on Adolescence2.07
Anne-Lise Goddings9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UCL: University College London),
Anne Lise Goddings (UCL: University College London)+ 2 AuthorsBarbara R. Braams12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Harvard University)
Over the past two decades, there has been a tremendous increase in our understanding of structural and functional brain development in adolescence. However, understanding the role of puberty in this process has received much less attention. This review examines this relationship by summarizing recent research studies where the role of puberty was investigated in relation to brain structure, connectivity, and task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The studies together suggest ...
Published on Feb 1, 2019in Journal of Neuroendocrinology3.04
Nasr A.I. Farooqi1
Estimated H-index: 1
(McGill University),
Martina Scotti1
Estimated H-index: 1
(McGill University)
+ 10 AuthorsJean R. Séguin43
Estimated H-index: 43
(UdeM: Université de Montréal)
Published on Nov 1, 2018in American Journal of Human Biology1.44
Hege Kristiansen2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Bergen),
Geir Egil Eide52
Estimated H-index: 52
(University of Bergen)
+ 3 AuthorsPétur Benedikt Júlíusson20
Estimated H-index: 20
(University of Bergen)
Published on Oct 15, 2018in PLOS ONE2.78
Ji-Jie Liu1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Ce Guo1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 5 AuthorsDe-Xiang Xu31
Estimated H-index: 31
Although use of fenvalerate has increased dramatically over the past decade, little is known about their potential adverse effects on growth and development. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of maternal fenvalerate exposure during pregnancy on growth and neurobehavioral development in the offspring. Pregnant mice were orally administered to fenvalerate (0.2, 2.0, and 20 mg/kg) daily throughout pregnancy. The tests of growth and neurobehavioral development were performed durin...
Published on Jun 1, 2018in Journal of Adolescence2.35
Rachel Marie Shulla (UA: University of Arizona)
Abstract This meta-analysis synthesizes the results of 14 independent studies conducted in the U.S. ( N = 6979 participants) that examined sex differences in internalized, externalized, and PTSD symptoms associated with grief during adolescence. The mean age of participants was 12.22 years (SD = 2.31) with 50% male and 50% female sex assigned at birth. While no mean-level differences were found between adolescent females and males in externalizing behaviors associated with grief ( d = 0.03), on ...
Published on Apr 1, 2018in Cerebral Cortex5.44
Angelita Pui-Yee Wong3
Estimated H-index: 3
(U of T: University of Toronto),
Leon French14
Estimated H-index: 14
(U of T: University of Toronto)
+ 6 AuthorsTomáš Paus82
Estimated H-index: 82
Abstract Age-related decreases in cortical thickness observed during adolescence may be related to fluctuations in sex and stress hormones. We examine this possibility by relating inter-regional variations in age-related cortical thinning (data from the Saguenay Youth Study) to inter-regional variations in expression levels of relevant genes (data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas); we focus on genes coding for glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PGR), ...
Published on Dec 1, 2017in Scientific Reports4.01
Tatsuo Kido11
Estimated H-index: 11
(UCSF: University of California, San Francisco),
Zhaoyu Sun1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UCSF: University of California, San Francisco),
Yun-Fai Chris Lau30
Estimated H-index: 30
(UCSF: University of California, San Francisco)
Sexual dimorphisms are prevalent in development, physiology and diseases in humans. Currently, the contributions of the genes on the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) in these processes are uncertain. Using a transgene activation system, the human sex-determining gene hSRY is activated in the single-cell embryos of the mouse. Pups with hSRY activated (hSRYON) are born of similar sizes as those of non-activated controls. However, they retard significantly in postnatal growth and deve...