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Sex differences in the adolescent brain and body: Findings from the saguenay youth study

Published on Jan 2, 2017in Journal of Neuroscience Research4.139
· DOI :10.1002/jnr.23825
Tomáš Paus86
Estimated H-index: 86
,
Angelita Pui-Yee Wong4
Estimated H-index: 4
+ 1 AuthorsZdenka Pausova7
Estimated H-index: 7
Abstract
This Mini-Review describes sex differences in 66 quantitative characteristics of the brain and body measured in a community-based sample of 1,024 adolescents 12–18 years of age, members of the Saguenay Youth Study. Using an extensive phenotyping protocol, we have obtained measures in a number of domains, including brain structure, cognition, mental health, substance use, body composition, metabolism, cardiovascular reactivity, and life style. For each measure, we provide estimates of effect size (Cohen's d) and sex-specific correlations with age (Pearson R). In total 59 of the 66 characteristics showed sex differences (at a nominal P < 0.05), with small (32), medium-sized (13), and large (11) effects. Some, but not all, of these sex differences increase during adolescence; this appears to be the case mostly for anatomical and physiological measures. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • References (36)
  • Citations (15)
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References36
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#1Zdenka PausovaH-Index: 36
#2Tomáš Paus (MIND Institute)H-Index: 86
Last. Suzanne Veillette (UQAC: Université du Québec à Chicoutimi)H-Index: 12
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The Saguenay Youth Study (SYS) is a two-generational study of adolescents and their parents (n = 1029 adolescents and 962 parents) aimed at investigating the aetiology, early stages and trans-generational trajectories of common cardiometabolic and brain diseases. The ultimate goal of this study is to identify effective means for increasing healthy life expectancy. The cohort was recruited from the genetic founder population of the Saguenay Lac St Jean region of Quebec, Canada. The participants u...
15 CitationsSource
#2LeonardGabriel (McGill University)H-Index: 35
Last. Tomáš Paus (U of T: University of Toronto)H-Index: 86
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Some of the known sex differences in white matter emerge during adolescence. Here, we replicate and extend our previous findings of sex differences in the structure of the corticospinal tract (Perrin et al. 2009; Herve et al. 2009). In a large normative sample of adolescents, we observed age × sex interactions in the signal intensity of T1-weighted (T1W) images (n = 941) and in magnetization transfer ratio (MTR; n = 761); both features were inversely associated with age in males but not in femal...
16 CitationsSource
#1Klára Marečková (University of Nottingham)H-Index: 6
#2M. Mallar Chakravarty (U of T: University of Toronto)H-Index: 44
Last. Tomáš Paus (University of Nottingham)H-Index: 86
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We used magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained in same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins (n = 119, 8 years of age) to study possible effects of prenatal androgens on craniofacial features. Using a principal component analysis of 19 craniofacial landmarks placed on the MR images, we identified a principal component capturing craniofacial features that distinguished females with a presumed differential exposure to prenatal androgens by virtue of having a male (vs. a female) co-twin (Cohen’s d ...
4 CitationsSource
#1Leon FrenchH-Index: 14
#2Courtney GrayH-Index: 1
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Importance Cannabis use during adolescence is known to increase the risk for schizophrenia in men. Sex differences in the dynamics of brain maturation during adolescence may be of particular importance with regard to vulnerability of the male brain to cannabis exposure. Objective To evaluate whether the association between cannabis use and cortical maturation in adolescents is moderated by a polygenic risk score for schizophrenia. Design, Setting, and Participants Observation of 3 population-bas...
70 CitationsSource
#1M. Pesaresi (U of T: University of Toronto)H-Index: 2
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Abstract Testosterone is a sex hormone involved in brain maturation via multiple molecular mechanisms. Previous human studies described age-related changes in the overall volume and structural properties of white matter during male puberty. Based on this work, we have proposed that testosterone may induce a radial growth of the axon and, possibly, modulate axonal transport. In order to determine whether this is the case we have used two different experimental approaches. With electron microscopy...
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#1Tomáš Paus (U of T: University of Toronto)H-Index: 86
#2Zdenka Pausova (U of T: University of Toronto)H-Index: 36
Last. Louis Richer (Université du Québec)H-Index: 31
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This paper provides an overview of the Saguenay Youth Study (SYS) and its parental arm. The overarching goal of this effort is to develop trans-generational models of developmental cascades contributing to the emergence of common chronic disorders, such as depression, addictions, dementia and cardio-metabolic diseases. Over the past 10 years, we have acquired detailed brain and cardio-metabolic phenotypes, and genome-wide genotypes, in 1029 adolescents recruited in a population with a known gene...
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#1Ammar Khairullah (U of T: University of Toronto)H-Index: 2
#2Laura Cousino Klein (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 26
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Purpose Pubertal dynamics plays an important role in physical and psychological development of children and adolescents. We aim to provide reference ranges of plasma testosterone in a large longitudinal sample. Furthermore, we describe a measure of testosterone trajectories during adolescence that can be used in future investigations of development. Methods We carried out longitudinal measurements of plasma testosterone in 2,216 samples obtained from 513 males (9 to 17 years of age) from the Avo...
17 CitationsSource
#1David I. Miller (NU: Northwestern University)H-Index: 12
#2Diane F. Halpern (CMC: Claremont McKenna College)H-Index: 41
Surprising new findings indicate that many conclusions about sex differences and similarities in cognitive abilities need to be reexamined. Cognitive sex differences are changing, decreasing for some tasks whereas remaining stable or increasing for other tasks. Some sex differences are detected in infancy, but the data are complex and depend on task characteristics. Diverse disciplines have revolutionized our understanding of why these differences exist. For instance, fraternal-twin studies alig...
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