Trends in Obesity Among Adults in the United States, 2005 to 2014

Published on Jun 7, 2016in JAMA51.273
· DOI :10.1001/jama.2016.6458
Katherine M. Flegal88
Estimated H-index: 88
(CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention),
Deanna Kruszon-Moran18
Estimated H-index: 18
(CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
+ 2 AuthorsCynthia L. Ogden59
Estimated H-index: 59
(CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Importance Between 1980 and 2000, the prevalence of obesity increased significantly among adult men and women in the United States; further significant increases were observed through 2003-2004 for men but not women. Subsequent comparisons of data from 2003-2004 with data through 2011-2012 showed no significant increases for men or women. Objective To examine obesity prevalence for 2013-2014 and trends over the decade from 2005 through 2014 adjusting for sex, age, race/Hispanic origin, smoking status, and education. Design, Setting, and Participants Analysis of data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a cross-sectional, nationally representative health examination survey of the US civilian noninstitutionalized population that includes measured weight and height. Exposures Survey period. Main Outcomes and Measures Prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥30) and class 3 obesity (body mass index ≥40). Results This report is based on data from 2638 adult men (mean age, 46.8 years) and 2817 women (mean age, 48.4 years) from the most recent 2 years (2013-2014) of NHANES and data from 21 013 participants in previous NHANES surveys from 2005 through 2012. For the years 2013-2014, the overall age-adjusted prevalence of obesity was 37.7% (95% CI, 35.8%-39.7%); among men, it was 35.0% (95% CI, 32.8%-37.3%); and among women, it was 40.4% (95% CI, 37.6%-43.3%). The corresponding prevalence of class 3 obesity overall was 7.7% (95% CI, 6.2%-9.3%); among men, it was 5.5% (95% CI, 4.0%-7.2%); and among women, it was 9.9% (95% CI, 7.5%-12.3%). Analyses of changes over the decade from 2005 through 2014, adjusted for age, race/Hispanic origin, smoking status, and education, showed significant increasing linear trends among women for overall obesity ( P  = .004) and for class 3 obesity ( P  = .01) but not among men ( P  = .30 for overall obesity; P  = .14 for class 3 obesity). Conclusions and Relevance In this nationally representative survey of adults in the United States, the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity in 2013-2014 was 35.0% among men and 40.4% among women. The corresponding values for class 3 obesity were 5.5% for men and 9.9% for women. For women, the prevalence of overall obesity and of class 3 obesity showed significant linear trends for increase between 2005 and 2014; there were no significant trends for men. Other studies are needed to determine the reasons for these trends.
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