Evaluation of Bismuth Modified Carbon Thread Electrode for Simultaneous and Highly Sensitive Cd (II) and Pb (II) Determination
Bismuth film modified and chemically activated carbon micro-thread electrodes were investigated for the simultaneous determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The carbon thread electrode was characterised using both surface and electrochemical techniques. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies demonstrated that the H2SO4/IPA-treated carbon thread electrode showed a much improved resistance response (Rct=23 Ω) compared to the IPA-untreated carbon thread (Rct=8317 Ω). Furthermore, parameters such as the effect of deposition potential, deposition time and Bi(III) concentration were explored using square wave voltammetry. Detection limits (S/N=3) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were found to be 1.08 µg L−1 and 0.87 µg L−1, respectively and response was found to be linear over the range 5–110 µg L−1. The proposed Bi/IPA-treated carbon thread electrode exhibited a high selectivity towards Cd(II) and Pb(II) even in the presence of a range of heavy metals and is capable of repetitive and reproducible measurements, being attributed to the high surface area, geometry and electrode treatment characteristics. The proposed metal ion sensor was employed to determine cadmium and lead in river water samples and % RSD was found to be 5.46 % and 5.93 % for Cd(II) and Pb(II) respectively (n=3). Such facile sensing components favour the development of cost effective portable devices for environmental sample analysis and electrochemical applications.