Withania somnifera Root Extract Enhances Telomerase Activity in the Human HeLa Cell Line

Published on Jan 1, 2016in Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology
· DOI :10.4236/abb.2016.74018
Vasantharaja Raguraman1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Jamuna R. Subramaniam9
Estimated H-index: 9
Abstract
Aging is a decelerating unidirectional process of life. Shortening of telomeric DNA, the (TTAGGG)n hexanucleotide repeats, which form the caps at the chromosome ends, is implicated to determine the aging process, and more importantly the healthy lifespan itself. Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein having reverse transcriptase activity, arrests telomere loss through addition of the TTAGGG repeats de novo, to the ends of the chromosome. The telomere/telomerase maintenance is an inevitable necessity to delay aging and for a healthy lifespan. Here, we report the potential of full-spectrum, high concentration Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), an Ayurvedic medicinal herb, root extract to increase telomerase activity. HeLa cells, when treated with various concentrations of Ashwagandha root extract, showed an increase in telomerase activity measured with the established Telomerase Rapid Amplification Protocol (TRAP) assay. Ashwagandha root extract increased telomerase activity with highest enhancement of ~45% at 10 - 50 μg concentration. Thus, Ashwagandha root extract has the anti-aging inducing potential.
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References23
Published on Sep 1, 2003in Current protocols in pharmacology
Brittney Shea Herbert10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center),
Jerry W. Shay118
Estimated H-index: 118
(University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center),
Woodring E. Wright93
Estimated H-index: 93
(University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center)
This unit describes techniques to analyze telomeric length and telomerase activity in human cells. Telomere length can be determined by a modification of Southern blotting in which the analysis of chromosome terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) provides the average lengths of all telomeres in a cell population. Telomerase activity can be measured in vitro by a sensitive and efficient polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection method, also known as telomeric repeat amplification protocol (T...
39 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 1, 2013in Phytotherapy Research 3.35
P. C. Prabu1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Shanmugha Arts, Science),
S. Panchapakesan1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Shanmugha Arts, Science),
C. David Raj4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Shanmugha Arts, Science)
Withania somnifera is a widely used medicinal plant for several disorders. Toxicity studies on Withania somnifera are not available. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of Withania somnifera root extract in Wistar rats were evaluated in the present study. In the acute toxicity study, WSR extract was administered to five rats at 2000 mg/kg, once orally and were observed for 14 days. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. In the sub-acute study, WSR extract was administered once daily for 28 days...
24 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 1951in Journal of Biological Chemistry 4.01
Oliver H. Lowry67
Estimated H-index: 67
(Washington University in St. Louis),
Nira J. Rosebrough1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Washington University in St. Louis)
+ 1 AuthorsRose J. Randall1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Washington University in St. Louis)
Since 1922 when Wu proposed the use of the Folin phenol reagent for the measurement of proteins, a number of modified analytical procedures utilizing this reagent have been reported for the determination of proteins in serum, in antigen-antibody precipitates, and in insulin. Although the reagent would seem to be recommended by its great sensitivity and the simplicity of procedure possible with its use, it has not found great favor for general biochemical purposes. In the belief that this reagent...
241k Citations
Published on Jun 1, 2006in Current Opinion in Cell Biology 10.02
Ignacio Flores23
Estimated H-index: 23
,
Roberta Benetti18
Estimated H-index: 18
,
Maria A. Blasco83
Estimated H-index: 83
Telomerase expression is restricted to a few cell types of the adult organism, most notably germ cells and stem/progenitor cells. Telomerase activity in germ cells is sufficient to prevent telomere shortening with age. Stem cells, however, do not have sufficient telomerase to prevent telomere shortening associated with continuous tissue renewal with increasing age. Indeed, telomerase levels in the adult organism are thought to be rate-limiting for longevity. This is supported by rare human syndr...
171 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 1990in Nature 41.58
Calvin B. Harley50
Estimated H-index: 50
(McMaster University),
Futcher Ab2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory),
Carol W. Greider67
Estimated H-index: 67
(Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)
The terminus of a DNA helix has been called its Achilles' heel. Thus to prevent possible incomplete replication and instability of the termini of linear DNA, eukaryotic chromosomes end in characteristic repetitive DNA sequences within specialized structures called telomeres. In immortal cells, loss of telomeric DNA due to degradation or incomplete replication is apparently balanced by telomere elongation, which may involve de novo synthesis of additional repeats by novel DNA polymerase called te...
4,095 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 2009in European Journal of Cancer 7.19
Fayaz Malik19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Council of Scientific and Industrial Research),
Ajay Kumar13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Council of Scientific and Industrial Research)
+ 10 AuthorsAjit Kumar Saxena26
Estimated H-index: 26
(Council of Scientific and Industrial Research)
Abstract Deregulated apoptosis and suppressed tumour reactive immunity render tumour cells to grow amok in the host body. Traditionally used botanicals may offer potential anticancer chemo-immunotherapeutic leads. We report in this study a chemically standardised herbal formulation (WSF) of Withania somnifera possessing anticancer and Th1 immune up-regulatory activities. WSF produced cytotoxicity in a panel of human cancer cell lines in vitro . The molecular mechanism of cell cytotoxicity, IC 50...
42 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2008in Cell 31.40
Antonia Tomás-Loba3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Ignacio Flores23
Estimated H-index: 23
+ 10 AuthorsJuana M. Flores48
Estimated H-index: 48
(Complutense University of Madrid)
Summary Telomerase confers limitless proliferative potential to most human cells through its ability to elongate telomeres, the natural ends of chromosomes, which otherwise would undergo progressive attrition and eventually compromise cell viability. However, the role of telomerase in organismal aging has remained unaddressed, in part because of the cancer-promoting activity of telomerase. To circumvent this problem, we have constitutively expressed telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), one o...
288 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2002in Cell Research 15.39
Jiao Mu1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Second Military Medical University),
Lixin Wei30
Estimated H-index: 30
Shortening of the telomeric DNA at the chromosome ends is presumed to limit the lifespan of human cells and elicit a signal for the onset of cellular senescence. To continually proliferate across the senescent checkpoint, cells must restore and preserve telomere length. This can be achieved by telomerase, which has the reverse transcriptase activity. Telomerase activity is negative in human normal somatic cells but can be detected in most tumor cells. The enzyme is proposed to be an essential fa...
40 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2015in Aging and Disease 5.06
Kunlin Jin20
Estimated H-index: 20
,
James W. Simpkins66
Estimated H-index: 66
+ 2 AuthorsIlia Stambler5
Estimated H-index: 5
Due to the aging of the global population and the derivative increase in aging-related non-communicable diseases and their economic burden, there is an urgent need to promote research on aging and aging-related diseases as a way to improve healthy and productive longevity for the elderly population. To accomplish this goal, we advocate the following policies: 1) Increasing funding for research and development specifically directed to ameliorate degenerative aging processes and to extend healthy ...
45 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2012in Experimental Gerontology 3.22
Kopal Saharia2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur),
Upasna Arya4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur)
+ 5 AuthorsJamuna R. Subramaniam9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur)
Abstract Aging is a debilitating process often associated with chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD occurs at a very high incidence posing a huge burden to the society. Model organisms such as C. elegans become essential to understand aging or lifespan extension – the etiology, molecular mechanism and identification of new drugs against age associated diseases. The AD model, manifesting Aβ proteotoxicity, in C. elegans...
21 Citations Source Cite
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Cited By3
Published on Sep 2, 2017in Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery 4.69
Komal Saraswat1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Allahabad University),
Syed Ibrahim Rizvi26
Estimated H-index: 26
(Allahabad University)
ABSTRACTIntroduction: Scientific achievements in the last few decades, leading to effective therapeutic interventions, have dramatically improved human life expectancy. Consequently, aging has become a significant problem and represents the major risk factor for most human pathologies including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and cancer. Scientific discoveries over the past two decades have been instrumental in dissecting molecular mechanism(s) which play important rol...
15 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 1, 2017in Phytomedicine 3.61
Niraj Tripathi , Divya Shrivastava2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Jaipur National University)
+ 4 AuthorsPrakash S. Bisen (Jaipur National University)
Abstract Background Withania somnifera , a high value medicinal plant is a major source of pharmaceutically important active compounds withanolides. Withania somnifera has been used in ayurveda as health restorative and anabolic agent besides having anti-arthritic, antidepressant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-stress, neuroprotective and cardio-protective activities. Hypothesis/Purpose The mining of the compound(s) of interest offers opportunity to identify desired attri...
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