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Effectiveness of Xenon as a Fire Suppressant Under Microgravity Combustion Environment

Published on Feb 1, 2016in Combustion Science and Technology1.56
· DOI :10.1080/00102202.2015.1085033
Fahd E. Alam4
Estimated H-index: 4
(USC: University of South Carolina),
Frederick L. Dryer4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Princeton University),
Tanvir I. Farouk4
Estimated H-index: 4
(USC: University of South Carolina)
Cite
Abstract
ABSTRACTThe ‘FLame EXtinguishment’ (FLEX) program conducted by NASA on board the International Space Station (ISS) has been assisting in developing fire-safety protocols for low gravity applications through microgravity droplet combustion experiments. A wide range of fuels, including alcohols and alkanes, have been studied in different ambient conditions that also encompass the use of various diluent species and concentrations. A prime focus of the work has been to observe the relative effectiveness of atmospheric composition and pressure changes on fire suppression under ‘reduced’ gravity conditions. Here, detailed numerical simulations are performed to investigate the combustion and extinction characteristics of isolated sphero-symmetric 1.0–2.0-mm diameter methanol droplets burning in xenon (Xe)-enriched environments. Comparisons of diluent behaviors under identical conditions using argon (Ar), carbon dioxide (CO2), and helium (He) as the alternative diluent to nitrogen are also reported. The predictio...
  • References (34)
  • Citations (4)
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References34
Newest
Published on Oct 1, 2014in Microgravity Science and Technology1.97
Daniel L. Dietrich13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Glenn Research Center),
Vedha Nayagam4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Case Western Reserve University)
+ 9 AuthorsYu Cheng Liu10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Cornell University)
This paper summarizes the first results from isolated droplet combustion experiments performed on the International Space Station (ISS). The long durations of microgravity provided in the ISS enable the measurement of droplet and flame histories over an unprecedented range of conditions. The first experiments were with heptane and methanol as fuels, initial droplet droplet diameters between 1.5 and 5.0 m m, ambient oxygen mole fractions between 0.1 and 0.4, ambient pressures between 0.7 and 3.0 ...
Published on Nov 1, 2013in Combustion and Flame4.12
Vedha Nayagam13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Glenn Research Center)
Abstract An activation energy asymptotic theory for methanol droplet combustion in microgravity is presented by extending earlier models to account for time-dependent water dissolution or evaporation from the liquid droplet. The model predictions for droplet extinction diameter as a function of its initial diameter are shown to compare favorably with experimental results for methanol burning in air.
Published on Sep 1, 2013in Combustion and Flame4.12
Inkant Awasthi2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
George Gogos17
Estimated H-index: 17
,
T. Sundararajan29
Estimated H-index: 29
(Indian Institute of Technology Madras)
Abstract Results are presented from numerical simulations of the combustion process of an isolated methanol droplet in a nearly quiescent ambient air ( T ∞ = 1200 K, and p ∞ = 1 atm.). The focus is on the effects of size variation for droplets which are present in a practical spray. We show a gradual transition from a kinetically controlled regime of small droplets to a diffusion controlled regime of large droplets. The analysis underlines the importance of accurate chemical kinetics, especially...
Published on Jan 1, 2013
Shinji Nakaya8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UTokyo: University of Tokyo),
Kotaro Fujishima1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UTokyo: University of Tokyo)
+ 2 AuthorsDaisuke Segawa10
Estimated H-index: 10
(OPU: Osaka Prefecture University)
Abstract The burning characteristics of isolated fuel droplets for ethanol, 1-butanol and n -decane were experimentally examined in carbon dioxide-rich or argon-rich environments under microgravity. The ambience consisted of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and argon. The concentration of oxygen was fixed to be 21% in volume percentage, and that of carbon dioxide or argon was varied from 0% to 60% in volume percentage. Detailed measurements of the droplet surface areas were conducted using a hig...
Published on Jan 1, 2013
Tanvir Farouk17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Princeton University),
Yu Cheng Liu10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Cornell University)
+ 2 AuthorsFrederick L. Dryer66
Estimated H-index: 66
(Princeton University)
Abstract Combustion characteristics of isolated sub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate (MB) droplets are studied at low gravity (10 −4 m/s 2 ) in a 1.2 s drop tower. In the experiments, droplets were grown and deployed onto the intersection of two 14 μm silicon carbide fibers in a cross-string arrangement and exposed to symmetrically placed spark ignition sources. The initial droplet diameter was fixed at 0.54 ± 0.01 mm, and experiments were carried out in room temperature air at atmospheric pres...
Published on Oct 1, 2012in Combustion and Flame4.12
Tanvir Farouk17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Princeton University),
Frederick L. Dryer66
Estimated H-index: 66
(Princeton University)
Abstract Quasi-steady burning and extinction of droplets are of interest from both fundamental and application viewpoints. The latter is related to combustor performance and fire safety issues in reduced gravity environments. Influences of diluent in the atmosphere on isolated droplet combustion characteristics including extinction provide insights to fire extinguishment phenomena and the effectiveness of various diluents as fire suppressants. Extinction of pure methanol and methanol–water dropl...
Published on Jul 1, 2012in International Journal of Chemical Kinetics1.42
Michael P. Burke15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Princeton University),
Marcos Chaos22
Estimated H-index: 22
(FM Global)
+ 2 AuthorsStephen J. Klippenstein58
Estimated H-index: 58
(Argonne National Laboratory)
An updated H2/O2 kinetic model based on that of Li et al. (Int J Chem Kinet 36, 2004, 566–575) is presented and tested against a wide range of combustion targets. The primary motivations of the model revision are to incorporate recent improvements in rate constant treatment and resolve discrepancies between experimental data and predictions using recently published kinetic models in dilute, high-pressure flames. Attempts are made to identify major remaining sources of uncertainties, in both the ...
Published on Jan 1, 2012in Combustion and Flame4.12
Tanvir Farouk17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Princeton University),
Frederick L. Dryer66
Estimated H-index: 66
(Princeton University)
Abstract Tethered methanol droplet combustion in carbon dioxide enriched environment is simulated using a transient one-dimensional spherosymmetric droplet combustion model that includes the effects of tethering. A priori numerical predictions are compared against recent experimental data. The numerical predictions compare favorably with the experimental results and show significant effects of tethering on the experimental observations. The presence of a relatively large quartz fiber tether incr...
Published on Jan 1, 2012in Journal of Combustion
Benjamin D. Shaw13
Estimated H-index: 13
(UC Davis: University of California, Davis),
Jingbin Wei3
Estimated H-index: 3
Reduced and normal gravity combustion experiments were performed with fiber-supported methanol droplets with initial diameters in the 1 mm size range. Experiments were performed with air-diluent mixtures at about 0.101 MPa and 298 K, where carbon dioxide, helium, or xenon was separately used as the diluent gas. Results indicate that ambient gas transport properties play an important role in determining flammability and combustion behaviors including burning rates and radiant heat output historie...
Published on Oct 1, 2011in Combustion Science and Technology1.56
Benjamin D. Shaw13
Estimated H-index: 13
(UC Davis: University of California, Davis),
J. B. Wei4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UC Davis: University of California, Davis)
Reduced gravity and normal gravity combustion experiments were performed with individual fiber-supported n-heptane and 1-propanol droplets with initial diameters in the 1-mm size range. Experiments were performed with air-inert mixtures at 0.1 MPa or 0.3 MPa and about 298 K, where helium, carbon dioxide, or xenon were separately used as inerts. The amount of inert gas required to suppress combustion was generally higher in reduced gravity than normal gravity, and higher mole fractions of xenon w...
Cited By4
Newest
Published on Aug 1, 2018in Combustion and Flame4.12
Vedha Nayagam4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Case Western Reserve University),
Daniel L. Dietrich13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Glenn Research Center)
+ 1 AuthorsForman A. Williams48
Estimated H-index: 48
(UCSD: University of California, San Diego)
Abstract Experimental observations are presented concerning radiative extinction of large n-alkane droplets in diluent-substituted environments at moderately varied pressures in microgravity onboard the International Space Station. The fuels considered are n-heptane, n-octane, and n-decane with carbon dioxide, helium, and xenon used as inerts, replacing nitrogen as diluents at varying amounts. It is shown that a simple scaling analysis, based on the assumptions that radiative extinction occurs w...
Published on Jan 1, 2018in IFAC-PapersOnLine
Kedarisetty Siddhardha (Indian Institute of Technology Madras)
Abstract Study of various physical phenomena in reduced gravity environments is of importance to several branches of science. This paper describes the trajectory design and automation control strategy for a quadrotor to maintain an acceleration such that a payload on-board experiences Mars-gravity for a short time period. A 1-D vertical trajectory with time varying acceleration is proposed for this purpose. A detailed kinematic analysis is presented to arrive at an acceleration schedule for the ...
Published on Feb 1, 2017in Microgravity Science and Technology1.97
Arup Jyoti Bhowal2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Heritage Institute of Technology),
Bijan Kumar Mandal9
Estimated H-index: 9
A methane air co flow diffusion flame has been numerically simulated with the help of an in-house developed code at normal gravity, 0.5 G, and 0.0001 G (microgravity) for the study of transient behavior of the flame in terms of flame shape, temperature profile and velocity (streamlines). The study indicates that lower is the gravity level, the higher is the time of early transience. The flame developments during transience are marked by the formation of a secondary flamelet at different heights ...
Published on Aug 1, 2016in Microgravity Science and Technology1.97
Arup Jyoti Bhowal2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Heritage Institute of Technology),
Bijan Kumar Mandal9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur)
An in-house developed code has been used to predict soot formation in a methane air co flow diffusion flame at normal gravity and at lower gravity levels of 0.5 G, and 0.0001 G (microgravity). There is an augmentation of soot formation at lower gravity levels because of lower buoyancy induced acceleration leading to an increased residence time. The peak temperature at microgravity is reduced by about 50 K than that at normal gravity level. The axial velocity under normal gravity and reduced grav...
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