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Performance in the Citing Behavior of Two Student Writers

Published on Jan 1, 2012in Written Communication 1.22
· DOI :10.1177/0741088311424133
Nigel Harwood15
Estimated H-index: 15
Bojana Petrić8
Estimated H-index: 8
This article reports the results of an interview-based study which investigated the citation behavior in the assignment writing of two second-language postgraduate business management students, Sofie and Tara. Discourse-based interviews were used to elicit the students’ own perspectives on their citation behavior in two of their assignments. Citations were one of the ways in which Sofie and Tara enacted performance (Goffman, 1959), aiming to create a favorable impression on the assignment markers. Both students made sure they cited key sources on their reading lists, whether they found the texts helpful or not, because they understood that lecturers required evidence that these sources had been consulted. Both writers also cited a large number of sources, whether they had read these sources carefully or not, to perform the industrious student who reads widely. By ensuring the same sources which had been discussed in class were cited in her writing, Tara was able to perform the attentive student who listened carefully to lectures and seminars. Sofie sometimes tailored what she cited to fit her markers’ perceived interests and ideological standpoints, in an attempt to align her own stance with what she felt would be the stance of her markers and thus gain their favor. Implications of using Goffman’s notion of performance to explore student writers’ citing behavior are discussed. The pedagogical implications of the study for subject-specific lecturers and for EAP teachers are also addressed.
  • References (35)
  • Citations (26)
Published on Jan 1, 2016in Research in The Teaching of English 1.68
Hannah Ashley1
Estimated H-index: 1
Four case studies of proficient undergraduate writers from working-class backgrounds were conducted in the context of a course preparing sophomore and junior students to be tutors for first-year basic writers. It was found that, in contrast to much of the theorizing by and about working-class academics that emphasizes loss, a stronger theme in these students' narratives of growing academic literacy was gaming. Students explained their experiences in ways that suggested a greater degree of agency...
Published on Sep 1, 2010in Journal of Second Language Writing 4.20
Rosemary Wette7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of Auckland)
Abstract There has been extensive discussion of the difficulties experienced by tertiary students when writing using sources in both first- and second-language (L1, L2) writing literature; however, few studies have reported on instructional interventions that aim to assist students to master this complex academic literacy. The action research study described in this paper recruited 78 undergraduate students from six strands of credit-bearing L2 writing courses. A pre-unit quiz and guided writing...
Published on Feb 1, 2010in Applied Linguistics 3.04
Ling Shi17
Estimated H-index: 17
(UBC: University of British Columbia)
This article explores the citing behaviors of 16 undergraduates in a North American university. After completing a research paper for their disciplinary courses, each participating student was interviewed to identify in his/her writing words and ideas borrowed from source texts and to explain why and how the relevant texts were appropriated with or without citations. Analysis of students’ writing and comments illustrates how they relied on source texts for various aspects of their essays, some o...
Published on Aug 1, 2009in Research in The Teaching of English 1.68
Beth Lewis Samuelson4
Estimated H-index: 4
This study examines discussions of model papers in a high school Advanced Placement English classroom where students were preparing for a high-stakes writing assessment. Much of the current research on talk about writing in various contexts such as classroom discourse, teacher-student writing conferences, and peer tutoring has emphasized the social and constructive nature of instructional discourse. Building on this work, the present study explored how talk about writing also takes on a performa...
Published on Mar 1, 2009in Journal of Pragmatics 1.33
Nigel Harwood15
Estimated H-index: 15
(University of Essex)
This paper is an emic, interview-based study of computer scientists’ and sociologists’ accounts of the functions of citations in their writing. Twelve informants took part in the research, commenting upon their citations in one of their own articles. Informants were not provided with functional checklists, and were free to ascribe as many functions to each citation as they wished. Eleven citation functions are identified and described, and evidence of inter- and intra-disciplinary similarities a...
Published on Sep 1, 2008in Nordic Journal of English Studies
Akiko Okamura1
Estimated H-index: 1
This study investigates the use of citation forms in 30 scientific research articles in biology, chemistry and physics written by writers in L1 and L2 contexts. Citation forms were divided into integral (syntactically integrated citation) and non-integral (syntactically non-integrated). Integral citation was further categorized into subject position, non-subject position (passive; clause constituent) and noun phrase (adjunct agent structure; phrase constituent), such as “according to.” Findings ...
Published on Jul 1, 2008in Written Communication 1.22
Peter Smagorinsky27
Estimated H-index: 27
In this article, the author argues that Method sections in social science research reports, particularly those that employ qualitative methods, often lack sufficient detail to make any results that follow from the analytic method trustworthy. The author provides a brief review of the evolution of the Method section from the 1960s to the present, makes a case for a more robust reporting of research method, and then outlines one way to achieve the end of providing a detailed, specific account of r...
Published on Jul 1, 2008in Written Communication 1.22
Theresa Lillis19
Estimated H-index: 19
(OU: Open University)
This article critically explores the value of ethnography for enhancing context-sensitive approaches to the study of academic writing. Drawing on data from two longitudinal studies, student writing in the United Kingdom and professional academic writing in Hungary, Slovakia, Spain, and Portugal, the author illustrates the different contributions ethnography can make to researching academic writing, depending on the level at which it is construed, as method, methodology, or “deep theorizing.” In ...
Published on Jan 1, 2008in Internet and Higher Education 5.28
Pavlina Radia4
Estimated H-index: 4
(U of T: University of Toronto),
Paul Stapleton15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Hokkaido University)
The Web has become a vast and appealing source of information for undergraduate students writing academic papers. While some online resources are comparable in quality to the materials housed in a library, newly accessible, Web-specific genres, such as interest groups, often undermine traditional expectations of scholarly authority, rigor, and objectivity. Since many of these genres harbor hidden agendas, their impact is often manipulative. Giving the illusion of rigor, they can present challeng...
Published on Jul 1, 2007in Journal of English for Academic Purposes 1.73
Amy Cooper1
Estimated H-index: 1
(OU: Ohio University),
Dawn Bikowski7
Estimated H-index: 7
(OU: Ohio University)
Abstract This paper presents a case study of writing tasks in graduate courses at a large, American university. The study investigates writing tasks across the curriculum and draws implications for curriculum design in English for Academic Purposes (EAP). Using actual course syllabi for task analysis, the researchers analyzed 200 course syllabi from 20 academic departments covering a wide range of disciplines. Findings indicate that library research papers and project reports are the most common...
Cited By26
Published on Jun 24, 2019in Language Teaching Research 2.32
Awad Alhassan (UofK: University of Khartoum)
Business, as a study area, attracts many students on English-medium programmes in ESL/EFL (English as a second language / English as a foreign language). However, there has been scarce research on ...
Published on Jun 1, 2019in Journal of Second Language Writing 4.20
Debra A. Friedman5
Estimated H-index: 5
(IU: Indiana University)
Abstract Using the theoretical framework of language socialization, this paper investigates the local contexts in which four international students were initiated into citation during their first semester in a Masters in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (MA-TESOL) program. Drawing from 38 hours of observation and audiotaping in two teaching methods courses, interviews with instructors and students, and students’ texts, it situates students’ citation practices within the discourses...
Published on Mar 1, 2019in Journal of English for Academic Purposes 1.73
Heike Neumann5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Concordia University),
Sarah Leu (McGill University), Kim McDonough10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Concordia University)
Abstract Researchers have called for the development of new pedagogical strategies to help students learn how to integrate source information into their own texts effectively (Casanave, 2017; Hu, 2015). Since these strategies are tied to particular pedagogical contexts, their development has to be preceded by a careful examination of the context where they will be implemented. To that end, the current study examined how students use sources in their own writing at an English-medium university in...
Published on Jan 1, 2019in English for Specific Purposes 1.70
Quynh Nguyen (University of Auckland), Louisa Buckingham4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Auckland)
Abstract This is a qualitative investigation into international Master's students' approach to using sources in read-to-write assignments. It investigates three stages of students' engagement with sources: understanding source-use expectations, identifying appropriate sources, and incorporating content from source texts into assignment writing. Data were compiled from text-based interviews with seven Vietnamese students, an assignment, and course-related documentation. The results provide insigh...
Published on Nov 8, 2018in Teaching in Higher Education 1.72
Karen Gravett1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Surrey),
Ian M. Kinchin27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Surrey)
This article examines the challenges experienced by students when developing referencing practices. There has been minimal research into students’ development of their referencing skills, with referencing often considered a mechanistic skill and not worthy of attention. This paper argues that, rather, referencing is an area of practice imbued with issues of power and identity and that the difficulties students experience in this area are leading them to exhibit a lack of agency – ultimately, a f...
Published on Nov 1, 2018in Journal of English for Academic Purposes 1.73
Rosemary Wette7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of Auckland)
Abstract In recent years, research interest in writing using sources has broadened from a focus on plagiarism to studies of source based writing in academic settings and the challenges it presents for novice writers. While previous research has largely involved assignment writing or experimental tasks by L2 students in pre-sessional or adjunct EAP courses, this naturalistic study explored students' source text use in the disciplines. It used a questionnaire, citation analysis and text-based inte...
Published on Jul 1, 2018in English for Specific Purposes 1.70
Jeongyeon Kim5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UNIST: Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology),
Eun Gyong Kim4
Estimated H-index: 4
Soo-Ok Kweon3
Estimated H-index: 3
(POSTECH: Pohang University of Science and Technology)
Abstract Science and Engineering universities have been at the forefront of a recent drive to cultivate the global competitiveness of Korean higher education through English-medium instruction (EMI). This study investigates how professors teaching Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS) in this local context envision an EMI policy and the roles of the local language by means of questionnaires and interviews. Furthermore, this study identifies the types of support needed for improving EMI in a non-E...
Published on Aug 10, 2017in Journal of Further and Higher Education
Cecile Badenhorst3
Estimated H-index: 3
(MUN: Memorial University of Newfoundland)
AbstractLiterature reviews are a genre that many graduate students do not fully understand and find difficult to write. While the genre, language and rhetorical moves of literature reviews are widely researched, less research focuses on citation use in literature reviews. Teaching students ‘how-to’ write the literature review through explicit genre awareness is not enough. What is needed, is a focus on the discursive nature of citations since citations are a core ingredient in literature reviews...