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Visceral Obesity: The Link Among Inflammation, Hypertension, and Cardiovascular Disease

Published on Apr 1, 2009in Hypertension 7.02
· DOI :10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.108.110320
Patrick Mathieu46
Estimated H-index: 46
(Laval University),
Paul Poirier53
Estimated H-index: 53
(Laval University)
+ 2 AuthorsJean-Pierre Després110
Estimated H-index: 110
(Laval University)
Cite
Abstract
The worldwide epidemic of obesity, fostered by the modern lifestyle characterized by the lack of physical activity and an energy-dense diet, has contributed to create an unprecedented condition in human history where a majority of overfed individuals will soon surpass the number of malnourished.1 Obesity-associated disorders, such as diabetes mellitus, an atherogenic dyslipidemia, and hypertension, have undoubtedly contributed to create an atherosclerosis-prone environment and thereby the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), a leading cause of mortality in Westernized societies. A growing body of evidence indicates that obesity is a heterogeneous condition in which body fat distribution is closely associated with metabolic perturbations and, thus, with CVD risk.2 In this regard, accumulation of visceral (intra-abdominal) fat is strongly associated with insulin resistance and with a typical atherogenic dyslipidemic state.3 The adipose tissue, once considered a simple energy warehouse, is now regarded as a complex organ not only contributing to the management of energy flux within the body but also interacting with the inflammatory system and the vascular wall. Furthermore, recent studies have underlined that there are intricate interplays among adipocytes, the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which participate in the obesity-associated dysmetabolic state. Thus, the adipose tissue is believed to play an important role in the development of both hypertension and other complications related to insulin resistance. However, it should be pointed out that different fat depots have distinct metabolic characteristics, leading to individual differences in the impact of obesity on cardiometabolic risk. Herein, we reviewed the complex links among visceral adiposity, inflammation, and hypertension, along with an attempt to address the clinical implications of these interactions. ### Small, Dense Low-Density Lipoprotein By its peculiar location, the expanded visceral fat depot has easy access to the liver via the portal circulation, where it could influence metabolism and promote insulin …
  • References (56)
  • Citations (314)
Cite
References56
Newest
Published on Feb 1, 2009in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 4.48
Joseph E. Donnelly EdD43
Estimated H-index: 43
,
Steven N. Blair140
Estimated H-index: 140
+ 3 AuthorsBryan K. Smith19
Estimated H-index: 19
ABSTRACTOverweight and obesity affects more than 66% of the adult population and is associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Weight reduction reduces health risks associated with chronic diseases and is therefore encouraged by major health agencies. Guidelines of the National Heart, Lung, and
Published on Nov 20, 2008in The New England Journal of Medicine 70.67
Paul M. Ridker192
Estimated H-index: 192
(Partners HealthCare),
Eleanor Danielson10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Brigham and Women's Hospital)
+ 9 AuthorsJames Shepherd76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Glas.: University of Glasgow)
Increased levels of the inflammatory biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein predict cardiovascular events. Since statins lower levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as well as cholesterol, we hypothesized that people with elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels but without hyperlipidemia might benefit from statin treatment. Methods We randomly assigned 17,802 apparently healthy men and women with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels of less than 130 mg per ...
Published on Jul 17, 2008in The New England Journal of Medicine 70.67
Iris Shai39
Estimated H-index: 39
(BGU: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev),
D. Schwarzfuchs2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)
+ 21 AuthorsH. Vardi9
Estimated H-index: 9
Background Trials comparing the effectiveness and safety of weight-loss diets are frequently limited by short follow-up times and high dropout rates. Methods In this 2-year trial, we randomly assigned 322 moderately obese subjects (mean age, 52 years; mean body-mass index [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], 31; male sex, 86%) to one of three diets: low-fat, restricted-calorie; Mediterranean, restricted-calorie; or low-carbohydrate, non–restricted-calorie.
Published on Jul 10, 2008in European Heart Journal 23.24
Renate B. Schnabel58
Estimated H-index: 58
(University of Mainz),
Claudia M. Messow7
Estimated H-index: 7
+ 10 AuthorsSabine Genth-Zotz23
Estimated H-index: 23
(University of Mainz)
We read with interest the article by Schnabel et al. 1 in which the authors assessed the prognostic value of baseline levels of adiponectin in patients with manifest coronary artery disease (CAD). They conclude that adiponectin concentration is predictive of cardiovascular death or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) at a median follow-up of 2.5 years. Several considerations are worth noting before accepting these conclusions. First, the overall study population is markedly heterogeneous due to...
Published on Apr 2, 2008in JAMA 51.27
Steven E. Nissen86
Estimated H-index: 86
,
Stephen J. Nicholls53
Estimated H-index: 53
(Cleveland Clinic)
+ 15 AuthorsSamir Kapadia74
Estimated H-index: 74
(Cleveland Clinic)
Context: Abdominal obesity is associated with metabolic abnormalities and increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, no obesity management strategy has demonstrated the ability to slow progression of coronary disease. Objective: To determine whether weight loss and metabolic effects of the selective cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonist rimonabant reduces progression of coronary disease in patients with abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Design, Setting, and P...
Published on Nov 1, 2007in The Lancet 59.10
Robin Christensen44
Estimated H-index: 44
(Frederiksberg Hospital),
Pernelle Kruse Kristensen2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UCPH: University of Copenhagen)
+ 2 AuthorsA. Astrup92
Estimated H-index: 92
(UCPH: University of Copenhagen)
Summary Background Since the prevalence of obesity continues to increase, there is a demand for effective and safe anti-obesity agents that can produce and maintain weight loss and improve comorbidity. We did a meta-analysis of all published randomised controlled trials to assess the efficacy and safety of the newly approved anti-obesity agent rimonabant. Methods We searched The Cochrane database and Controlled Trials Register, Medline via Pubmed, Embase via WebSpirs, Web of Science, Scopus, and...
Sherry A. Tanumihardjo33
Estimated H-index: 33
,
Cheryl A.M. Anderson39
Estimated H-index: 39
+ 6 AuthorsDiane D. Stadler12
Estimated H-index: 12
Abstract In the year 2000, multiple global health agencies and stakeholders convened and established eight tenets that, if followed, would make our world a vastly better place. These tenets are called the Millennium Development Goals. Most of these goals are either directly or indirectly related to nutrition. The United Nations has led an evaluation team to monitor and assess the progress toward achieving these goals until 2015. We are midway between when the goals were set and the year 2015. Th...
Published on Oct 17, 2007in European Heart Journal 23.24
Benoit J. Arsenault34
Estimated H-index: 34
(Laval University),
Isabelle Lemieux45
Estimated H-index: 45
+ 5 AuthorsS. Matthijs Boekholdt56
Estimated H-index: 56
Aims To evaluate the association of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in small and large LDL particles with risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods and results We performed a prospective case-control study nested in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort. Cases were apparently healthy men and women aged 45–79 years who developed fatal or non-fatal CHD ( n = 1035), and who were matched by age, gender, and enrollment time to 1920 controls who remained free of CHD. Electrophoretic ...
Published on Sep 12, 2007in JAMA 51.27
A.M. Lincoff97
Estimated H-index: 97
,
Kathy Wolski43
Estimated H-index: 43
(Cleveland Clinic)
+ 1 AuthorsSteven E. Nissen86
Estimated H-index: 86
ContextPioglitazone is widely used for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but evidence is mixed regarding the influence of medications of this class on cardiovascular outcomes.ObjectiveTo systematically evaluate the effect of pioglitazone on ischemic cardiovascular events.Data Sources and Study SelectionA database containing individual patient-level time-to-event data collected during pioglitazone clinical trials was transferred from the drug's manufacturer for independe...
Published on Jun 14, 2007in The New England Journal of Medicine 70.67
Steven E. Nissen86
Estimated H-index: 86
(Cleveland Clinic),
Kathy Wolski43
Estimated H-index: 43
(Cleveland Clinic)
�Rosiglitazone was associated with a significant increase in the risk of myocardial infarction and with an increase in the risk of death from cardiovascular causes that had borderline significance. Our study was limited by a lack of access to original source data, which would have enabled time-to-event analysis. Despite these limitations, patients and providers should consider the potential for serious adverse cardiovascular effects of treatment with rosiglitazone for type 2 diabetes.
Cited By314
Newest
Published in bioRxiv
Matthew D Barberio (IUPUI: Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis), Evan P. Nadler24
Estimated H-index: 24
+ -3 AuthorsMonica Hubal (IUPUI: Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis)
Background: Epigenetic changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with obesity and their effects on gene expression are poorly understood, especially during emergent obesity in youth. The current study tested the hypothesis that methylation and gene expression profiles of key growth factor and inflammatory pathways such as PI3K/AKT signaling are altered in VAT from obese compared to non-obese youth. Methods: VAT samples from adolescent females grouped as Lean (L; n=15; age=15 +/- 3 yrs, BMI=21.9 +...
Published in Sports Medicine 7.58
R. Sultana1
Estimated H-index: 1
(USYD: University of Sydney),
A. Sabag2
Estimated H-index: 2
(USYD: University of Sydney)
+ -3 AuthorsNathan A. Johnson24
Estimated H-index: 24
(USYD: University of Sydney)
Background Evidence for the efficacy of low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT) for the modulation of body composition is unclear.
Published on Jul 8, 2019in Molecular Biology Reports 2.11
Neda Lotfi Yagin1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Tabriz University of Medical Sciences),
Fereshteh Aliasgari (Tabriz University of Medical Sciences)+ 2 AuthorsMaryam Akbarzadeh (University of Tabriz)
The chronic over-activation of the endogenously produced cannabinoids in obesity has been demonstrated in several studies. A common 385C>A single nucleotide polymorphism of the fatty acid amide hydrolase, one the most important inactivating enzymes of endogenous cannabinoids, has been shown to be associated with obese phenotype. This study was designed to investigate the FAAH gene polymorphisms and to compare the obesity indices between different genotypes in Iranian overweight/obese women. A to...
Published on May 1, 2019in Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 3.24
Mo’ez Al-Islam Faris6
Estimated H-index: 6
(College of Health Sciences, Bahrain),
Mohamed Madkour1
Estimated H-index: 1
(College of Health Sciences, Bahrain)
+ 6 AuthorsMohammad Ghaleb Mohammad (College of Health Sciences, Bahrain)
Abstract Aim Excessive visceral adiposity is a major risk factor for developing insulin resistance and systemic low-grade inflammation. Ramadan diurnal fasting (RDF) is a religious ritual practiced by more than one billion Muslim throughout the world. It has been considered as one of the most common types of complementary and integrative health practices. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of RDF on visceral adiposity, circulating adipokines and glucoregulatory markers in patients wi...
Published on May 1, 2019in Current Hypertension Reports 3.61
Thierry H. Le Jemtel21
Estimated H-index: 21
(Tulane University),
Rohan Samson3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Tulane University)
+ 2 AuthorsSuzanne Oparil94
Estimated H-index: 94
(UAB: University of Alabama at Birmingham)
Purpose of Review Epicardial adipose tissue has been associated with the development/progression of cardiovascular disease. We appraise the strength of the association between epicardial adipose tissue and development/progression of cardiovascular diseases like coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.
Published on May 1, 2019in Diabetes-metabolism Research and Reviews
Christian Ortega-Loubon1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Autonomous University of Barcelona),
Christian Ortega-Loubon1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsRicardo Correa1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UA: University of Arizona)
Published on Mar 1, 2019in Primary Care 1.72
Parvathi Perumareddi (FAU: Florida Atlantic University)
Published on Mar 1, 2019in Current Anesthesiology Reports
Jaime L. Daly (Harvard University), Vilma E. Ortiz4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Harvard University)
Purpose of Review The goal of this review is to summarize recent findings on the physiologic alterations posed by maternal obesity and implications for the anesthetic care of mother and infant.
Published on Mar 1, 2019in Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins 2.96
Alireza Farrokhian5
Estimated H-index: 5
(KAUMS: Kashan University of Medical Sciences),
Fariba Raygan8
Estimated H-index: 8
(KAUMS: Kashan University of Medical Sciences)
+ 4 AuthorsZatollah Asemi27
Estimated H-index: 27
(KAUMS: Kashan University of Medical Sciences)
Synbiotics are known to exert multiple beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of synbiotic supplementation on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), biomarkers of inflammation, and oxidative stress in people with overweight, diabetes, and coronary heart disease (CHD). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted and involved 60 people with overweight, diabetes, and CHD, aged 50–85 years o...
Published on Jan 19, 2019in Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 6.70
Sepideh Soltani4
Estimated H-index: 4
(IUMS: Iran University of Medical Sciences),
Roya Kolahdouz Mohammadi2
Estimated H-index: 2
(IUMS: Iran University of Medical Sciences)
+ 2 AuthorsAmin Salehi-Abargouei16
Estimated H-index: 16
ABSTRACTThe prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been greatly increased, worldwide. In recent years, investigators have proposed that sodium might contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome; however, the published data were conflicting. The present systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence from observational studies in this regard. We conducted a systematic search for relevant observational studies investigating the association between sodium status and MetS, published un...