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Increased Pyrethroid Resistance in Malaria Vectors and Decreased Bed Net Effectiveness, Burkina Faso

Published on Oct 1, 2014in Emerging Infectious Diseases7.185
· DOI :10.3201/eid2010.140619
Kobié H. Toé3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Christopher M. Jones22
Estimated H-index: 22
+ 3 AuthorsHilary Ranson68
Estimated H-index: 68
Sources
Abstract
Malaria control is dependent on insecticides. Increases in prevalence of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors across Africa are well-documented. However, few attempts have been made to quantify the strength of this resistance and link it to the effectiveness of control tools. Using quantitative bioassays, we show that in Burkina Faso pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes has increased in intensity in recent years and now exceeds 1,000-fold. In laboratory assays, this level of resistance renders insecticides used to impregnate bed nets ineffective. Thus, the level of personal and community protection afforded by long-lasting insecticide-treated net campaigns will probably be reduced. Standardized methods are needed to quantify resistance levels in malaria vectors and link these levels to failure of vector control methods.
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  • References (16)
  • Citations (94)
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References16
Newest
#1Kathryn G AndrewsH-Index: 1
#2Cristin A FergusH-Index: 5
Last. Ghasem ZamaniH-Index: 1
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540 Citations
#1Eric Ochomo (Kenya Medical Research Institute)H-Index: 12
#2Nabie Bayoh (Kenya Medical Research Institute)H-Index: 16
Last. John E. Gimnig (CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)H-Index: 37
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Background: Long-lasting insecticide-treated mosquito nets (LLINs) are a primary malaria prevention strategy in sub-Saharan Africa. However, emergence of insecticide resistance threatens the effectiveness of LLINs. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys of LLINs were conducted in houses of seven and four villages in Gem and Bungoma Districts in western Kenya, respectively. Condition (number and area of holes in the nets), number and species of mosquitoes resting inside them, and insecticidal activity ...
49 CitationsSource
#1Henry D. MawejjeH-Index: 9
#2Craig S. Wilding (LSTM: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine)H-Index: 25
Last. Martin J. Donnelly (LSTM: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine)H-Index: 40
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Insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) threatens insecticide-based control efforts, necessitating regular monitoring. We assessed resistance in field-collected An. gambiae s.l. from Jinja, Uganda using World Health Organization (WHO) biosassays. Only An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis (≅70%) were present. Female An. gambiae exhibited extremely high pyrethroid resistance (permethrin LT50 > 2 h; deltamethrin LT50 > 5 h). Female An. arabiensis were...
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#1Constant EdiH-Index: 2
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#1Stephen S Lim (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 66
#2Nancy Fullman (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 38
Last. Emmanuela Gakidou (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 45
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Background: Several sub-Saharan African countries have rapidly scaled up the number of households that own insecticidetreated mosquito nets (ITNs). Although the efficacy of ITNs in trials has been shown, evidence on their impact under routine conditions is limited to a few countries and the extent to which the scale-up of ITNs has improved population health remains uncertain. Methods and Findings: We used matched logistic regression to assess the individual-level association between household IT...
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#1Hilary Ranson (LSTM: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine)H-Index: 68
#2Raphael N’Guessan (Lond: University of London)H-Index: 32
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#2Abdoulaye Diabaté (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 32
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Background Insecticide resistance of the main malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, has been reported in south-western Burkina Faso, West Africa. Cross-resistance to DDT and pyrethroids was conferred by alterations at site of action in the sodium channel, the Leu-Phe kdr mutation; resistance to organophosphates and carbamates resulted from a single point mutation in the oxyanion hole of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme designed as ace-1R.
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Background SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are homoplasy-free and co-dominant genetic markers which are considered to represent useful tools for population genetic studies, and could help clarifying the speciation processes ongoing within the major malaria vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae s.s. Here, we report the results of the analysis of the insertion polymorphism of a nearly 200 bp-long SINE (SINE200) within genome areas of high differentiation (i.e. "speciation islands") of M and S A....
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#2Mouhamadou Chouaibou (IRD: Institut de recherche pour le développement)H-Index: 10
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Spraying of agricultural crops with insecticides can select for resistance in nontarget insects and this may compromise the use of insecticides for the control of vector-borne diseases. The tolerance of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis to deltamethrin was determined in a field population from a cotton-growing region of Northern Cameroon both prior to and midway through the 4-month period of insecticide application to the cotton crop. A 1.6-fold increase in the median knockdown time was o...
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Mosquito-borne malaria kills 429,000 people each year with the problem acute in sub-Saharan Africa. The successes gained with long-lasting pyrethroid treated bed-nets is now in jeopardy because of wide-spread, pyrethroid-resistance in mosquitoes. Using crowd modeling theory normalized for standard bed-net architecture, we were able to design a pull-trap-kill mechanism for mosquitoes that does not require insecticides. Using three-dimensional polyster knitting technology and heat fixation, trap f...
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BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance is a growing concern for malaria control and vector control effectiveness relies on assessing it distribution and understanding its evolution. METHODS: We assessed resistance levels and the frequencies of two major target-site mutations, L1014F-VGSC and G119S-ace-1, conferring resistance to pyrethroids (PYRs) and carbamates/organophosphates (CXs/OPs) insecticides. These data were compared to those acquired between 2006 and 2010 to follow resistance evolutionary...
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Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) such as malaria, dengue, and leishmaniasis exert a huge burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly affecting the poorest of the poor. The principal method by which these diseases are controlled is through vector control, which has a long and distinguished history. Vector control, to a greater extent than drugs or vaccines, has been responsible for shrinking the map of many VBDs. Here, we describe the history of vector control programmes worldwide from ...
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Adding a flap on the top of an insecticide-treated bednet helps to intercept blood-seeking mosquitoes and allows a wider range of insecticides to be used together. Net buyers must now make a challenging decision for each target area: which net product will be most cost-effective, given the resistance in local vectors?
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Background: To sustain the efficacy of malaria vector control, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the combination of effective tools. Before designing and implementing additional strategies in any setting, it is critical to monitor or predict when and where transmission occurs. However, to date, very few studies have quantified the behavioural interactions between humans and Anopheles vectors. Here, we characterized residual transmission in a rural area of Burkina Faso where long las...
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