Biphasic insulin secretion during intravenous glucose tolerance test promotes optimal interstitial insulin profile.
We examined the hindlimb lymph insulin profile during simulated intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs) in anesthetized dogs to test the following hypotheses: 1) the biphasic insulin response to intravenous glucose can be seen as a priming bolus and a secondary infusion that effect a rapid stepwise increase in the interstitial insulin concentration and 2) the activation of glucose utilization (rate of glucose uptake [Rd]) during an IVGTT is more similar to the dynamics of the interstitial insulin profile than that of the arterial plasma. Three insulin profiles were infused: a normal biphasic pattern, a second phase infusion only, and a biphasic pattern with a fourfold greater first phase and a normal second phase. During the normal biphasic infusion, lymph insulin quickly reached and maintained a steady-state concentration (10 min, 26.42 +/- 0.86 microU/ml). With second phase only, it took lymph insulin 35 min to reach a steady state of lower concentration (13.13 +/- 0.46 microU/ml) than the normal. And with a fourfold greater first phase, lymph insulin plateaued quickly (16 min, 140.87 +/- 1.68 microU/ml), but for a shorter duration than the normal. For each profile, the time course of activation of Rd did not follow the time course of insulin in the plasma, but was more similar to that of insulin in the interstitial fluid. These results show that the biphasic response allows interstitial insulin to rapidly reach and maintain a steady state beneficial to activation and maintenance of glucose utilization.