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A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation

Published on Jan 1, 1997in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 5.92
· DOI :10.1037/0022-3514.72.1.218
Andrew J. Elliot79
Estimated H-index: 79
(UR: University of Rochester),
Marcy A. Church5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UR: University of Rochester)
Cite
Abstract
A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation was proposed and tested in a college classroom. Mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals were assessed and their antecedents and consequences examined. Results indicated that mastery goals were grounded in achievement motivation and high competence expectancies; performance-avoidance goals, in fear of failure and low competence expectancies; and performance-approach goals, in ach.ievement motivation, fear of failure, and high competence expectancies. Mastery goals facilitated intrinsic motivation, performance-approach goals enhanced graded performance, and performanceavoidance goals proved inimical to both intrinsic motivation and graded performance. The proposed model represents an integration of classic and contemporary approaches to the study of achievement motivation. Achievement motivation is a ubiquitous feature of daily life. In the classroom, at the workplace, and on the ballfield individuals strive to be competent in their effortful activities. In the past decade, many theorists have utilized a social-cognitive, achievement goal approach in accounting for individuals' competence-relevant strivings. "Achievement goal" is commonly defined as the purpose of task engagement (Maehr, 1989), and the specific type of goal adopted is posited to create a framework for how individuals interpret, experience, and act in their achievement pursuits (Dweck, 1986; Nicholls, 1989). Achievement goal theorists commonly identify two distinct orientations toward competence: a performance goal focused on the demonstration of competence relevant to others, and a mastery goal focused on the development of competence and task mastery (Ames & Archer, 1987; for similar conceptualizations with different nomenclature see Dweck, 1986; NichoUs, 1984). The adoption of a performance goal is hypothesized to produce susceptibility to a "helpless" pattern of responses in achievement settings (e.g., a preference for easy or difficult tasks, withdrawal of effort in the face of failure, and decreased task enjoyment), whereas the adoption of a mastery goal is presumed to lead to a "mastery" motivational pattern (e.g., a preference for moderately challenging tasks, persistence in the face of failure, and enhanced task enjoyment; Ames, 1992; Dweck & Leggett, 1988; Nicholls, 1989). Most achievement goal theorists conceptualize both perfor
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  • Citations (2156)
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References91
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Published on Sep 3, 2014
Charles D. Spielberger59
Estimated H-index: 59
,
Irwin G. Sarason61
Estimated H-index: 61
+ 1 AuthorsJohn M. Brebner1
Estimated H-index: 1
Stress And Emotion Theory Regulation Of The Energetic Level Of Behaviour - performance under stress consisting of high discrepancy between intensity of stimulation and level of reactivity stress model development and testing by group psychometrics and one-subject psychophysiology stress, conflict and personality the nature and logic of intrapsychic conflicts intrapersonal conflict, life stress And Emotion Personality And Generalization As A Source Of Stress emotional reactions to stress emotiona...
Published on Dec 6, 2012
The present invention refers to a safety stopping device for marine engines and employs a cord connected at one end to the pilot of the boat and at its other end to the safety device for the grounding of the ignition circuit of the engine either by operating a pushbutton, or by ripping off said cord held between said pushbutton and a retaining head traversing said button and connected by a stem to a metallic head capable by its axial movement to connect two fixed contact terminals interposed in ...
Published on Jan 1, 1997in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 5.92
Judith M. Harackiewicz44
Estimated H-index: 44
,
Kenneth E. Barron24
Estimated H-index: 24
(UW: University of Wisconsin-Madison)
+ 2 AuthorsAndrew J. Elliot79
Estimated H-index: 79
(UR: University of Rochester)
The authors investigated personality predictors of achievement goals in an introductory psychology class, as well as the consequences of these goals for the motivation and performance of 311 undergraduates. Two dimensions of achievement motivation (workmastery and competitive orientations; J. T. Spence & R. L. Helmreich, 1983) predicted the goals endorsed. Individuals high in workmastery were more likely to adopt mastery goals and less likely to adopt work avoidance goals, whereas competitive in...
Published on Jan 1, 1996in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 5.92
Michael A. Hogg77
Estimated H-index: 77
,
Sarah C. Hains4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UQ: University of Queensland)
An intergroup extension of M. A. Hogg's (1992, 1993) social attraction hypothesis is proposed. Netball teams were investigated with measures assessing the relationship between (a) objective status; (b) social beliefs about intergroup status, stability, legitimacy, and permeability; (c) group identification, self-categorization, and prototypicality; (d) interpersonal relations and similarity; (e) depersonalized social attraction; and (f) true personal attraction. As predicted, group-membership-ba...
Published on Jan 1, 1996in The Statistician
Rick H. Hoyle46
Estimated H-index: 46
Foreword - Kenneth A Bollen Preface - Rick H Hoyle The Structural Equation Modeling Approach - Rick H Hoyle Basic Concepts and Fundamental Issues Model Specification - Robert C MacCallum Procedures, Strategies, and Related Issues Estimates and Tests in Structural Equation Modeling - Chih-Ping Chou and Peter M Bentler Structural Equation Models with Nonnormal Variables - Stephen G West, John F Finch and Patrick J Curran Problems and Remedies Evaluating Model Fit - Li-tze Hu and Peter M Bentler St...
Published on Jan 1, 1996in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 5.92
Andrew J. Elliot79
Estimated H-index: 79
(UR: University of Rochester),
Judith M. Harackiewicz44
Estimated H-index: 44
(UW: University of Wisconsin-Madison)
nMost contemporary achievement goal conceptualizations consist of a performance goal versus mastery goal dichotomy. The present research offers an alternative framework by partitioning the performance goal orientation into independent approach and avoidance motivational orientations. Two experiments investigated the predictive utility of the proposed approach-avoidance achievement goal conceptualization in the intrinsic motivation domain. Results from both experiments supported the proposed fram...
Published on Dec 8, 1995
Martin L. Maehr34
Estimated H-index: 34
Part of a series that reflects research and theory concerned with motivation and achievement in work, school and play, this title focuses on a particular issue or theme.
Published on Oct 1, 1994in Contemporary Educational Psychology 2.48
Jennifer Archer10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of Newcastle)
Abstract This was a descriptive study of the motivational orientations of first year university students, using as its theoretical base the construct of mastery and performance goals, plus an additional goal of academic alienation. Scales were developed to measure these goals. Dependent variables included a positive attitude toward the course students were taking, willingness to tackle difficult tasks, and reported use of effective metacognitive strategies. A series of analyses demonstrated the ...
Published on Jan 1, 1994in Psychological Review 6.27
Daniel M. Wegner67
Estimated H-index: 67
A theory of ironic processes of mental control is proposed to account for the intentional and counterintentional effects that result from efforts at self-control of mental states. The theory holds that an attempt to control the mind introduces 2 processes: (a) an operating process that promotes the intended change by searching for mental contents consistent with the intended state and (b) a monitoring process that tests whether the operating process is needed by searching for mental contents inc...
Cited By2156
Newest
Abstract The relationship between goal orientation and performance adaptation across studies was assessed in the present article. The relevance of performance adaptation can be exemplified by the desire to optimize performance and mitigate the negative effects of change in organizational and educational contexts (i.e. new co-workers, new software, emergencies). Three-level meta-analyses were conducted for learning goal orientation (LGO) and performance goal orientation (PGO). Furthermore, within...
Published on Jul 1, 2019in Contemporary Educational Psychology 2.48
Corwin Senko13
Estimated H-index: 13
(SUNY: State University of New York System)
Abstract The most surprising and controversial finding in achievement goal research is that performance goals predict academic achievement more reliably than do mastery goals. This paper reviews and tests multiple explanations for those effects. Each assumes that either goal can facilitate achievement under particular learning conditions. The challenge framework posits that performance goals facilitate achievement only on simple tasks, and that mastery goal do so on challenging tasks. The depth ...
Published on Dec 1, 2018in Research Policy 5.42
Oguz Ali Acar4
Estimated H-index: 4
(City University London)
Crowdsourcing challenges are fast emerging as an effective tool for solving complex innovation problems. The main strength of the crowdsourcing model is that it brings together a large number of diverse people from all over the world to focus on solving a problem. This openness, however, results in a large number of solutions that are not appropriate, and this inhibits organizations from leveraging the value of crowdsourcing efficiently and effectively. It is therefore essential to identify ways...
Published on Jul 1, 2019in Journal of Research in Personality 2.57
Jennifer Pickett (Vrije Universiteit Brussel), Joeri Hofmans19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Vrije Universiteit Brussel),
Filip De Fruyt41
Estimated H-index: 41
Abstract Research shows that extraversion is unrelated to performance approach goal orientation, both at the trait- and the state-level. However, since previous studies have either focused on the trait- or the state-level, such a conclusion may be premature. Building upon the idea that acting against one’s trait consumes self-control resources, we reason that within-person deviations from one’s level of trait extraversion might negatively relate to performance approach goal orientation. Using ex...
Published on May 29, 2018in Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 1.43
Maren Stahl Lerang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Stavanger),
Sigrun K. Ertesvåg9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Stavanger),
Trude Havik3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Stavanger)
ABSTRACTThis study aimed to investigate students’ perceptions of classroom interaction and goal orientation in association with academic achievement, school non-attendance, and disobedience among students in lower-secondary schools. The sample contained 1975 students from grades 8–10 (age 14–16) in 11 Norwegian lower-secondary schools. The results generally supported the theoretical model in which classroom interaction is significantly associated with goal orientation, which in turn is associate...
Published on May 30, 2019in Educational Psychology 1.25
Chen Chen2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Nanjing Normal University),
Andrew J. Elliot79
Estimated H-index: 79
(UR: University of Rochester),
Kennon M. Sheldon69
Estimated H-index: 69
(MU: University of Missouri)
Published on Sep 1, 2019in Biological Psychology 2.63
Christina Bejjani (RU: Rutgers University), Samantha DePasque2
Estimated H-index: 2
(RU: Rutgers University),
Elizabeth Tricomi15
Estimated H-index: 15
(RU: Rutgers University)
Abstract Intelligence mindset, which denotes individual beliefs about whether intelligence is fixed versus malleable, shapes academic success, but the neural mechanisms underlying mindset-related differences in learning are unknown. Here, we probe the effects of individual differences in mindset on neural responses to negative feedback after a competence threat manipulation. We hypothesized that when their competence was threatened, participants with fixed mindsets would interpret further negati...