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Escalating worldwide use of urea - a global change contributing to coastal eutrophication

Published on Feb 1, 2006in Biogeochemistry3.41
· DOI :10.1007/s10533-005-3070-5
Patricia M. Glibert60
Estimated H-index: 60
(UMCES: University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science),
John A. Harrison27
Estimated H-index: 27
(RU: Rutgers University)
+ 1 AuthorsSybil P. Seitzinger76
Estimated H-index: 76
(RU: Rutgers University)
Cite
Abstract
While the global increase in the use of nitrogen-based fertilizers has been well recognized, another change in fertilizer usage has simultaneously occurred: a shift toward urea-based products. Worldwide use of urea has increased more than 100-fold in the past 4 decades and now constitutes >50% of global nitrogenous fertilizer usage. Global urea usage extends beyond agricultural applications; urea is also used extensively in animal feeds and in manufacturing processes. This change has occurred to satisfy the world's need for food and more efficient agriculture. Long thought to be retained in soils, new data are suggestive of significant overland transport of urea to sensitive coastal waters. Urea concentrations in coastal and estuarine waters can be substantially elevated and can represent a large fraction of the total dissolved organic nitrogen pool. Urea is used as a nitrogen substrate by many coastal phytoplankton and is increasingly found to be important in the nitrogenous nutrition of some harmful algal bloom (HAB) species. The global increase from 1970 to 2000 in documented incidences of paralytic shellfish poisoning, caused by several HAB species, is similar to the global increase in urea use over the same 3 decades. The trend toward global urea use is expected to continue, with the potential for increasing pollution of sensitive coastal waters around the world.
  • References (103)
  • Citations (321)
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References103
Newest
Published on Apr 1, 2006in Estuaries and Coasts2.69
Patricia M. Glibert60
Estimated H-index: 60
(UMCES: University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science),
Cynthia A. Heil29
Estimated H-index: 29
(Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission)
+ 2 AuthorsMark J. O'donohue5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UQ: University of Queensland)
Subtropical estuaries have received comparatively little attention in the study of nutrient loading and subsequent nutrient processing relative to temperate estuaries. Australian estuaries are particularly susceptible to increased nutrient loading and eutrophication, as 75% of the population resides within 200 km of the coastline. We assessed the factors potentially limiting both biomass and production in one Australian estuary, Moreton Bay, through stoichiometric comparisons of nitrogen (N), ph...
Published on Sep 1, 2005in Science China-life Sciences3.58
Michel Prud’homme1
Estimated H-index: 1
(International Fertilizer Industry Association)
This paper presents a brief overview of the world nitrogen fertilizer demand, highlights trends in the global and regional developments of production capacity and provides a medium-term perspective of the global nitrogen supply/demand balance.
Published on Jun 1, 2005in Oceanography3.91
Patricia M. Glibert60
Estimated H-index: 60
,
Donald M. Anderson75
Estimated H-index: 75
+ 2 AuthorsKevin G. Sellner18
Estimated H-index: 18
Author Posting. © Oceanography Society, 2005. This article is posted here by permission of Oceanography Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Oceanography 18, 2 (2005): 136-147.
Published on Jun 1, 2005in Oceanography3.91
Patricia M. Glibert60
Estimated H-index: 60
,
Sybil P. Seitzinger76
Estimated H-index: 76
+ 4 AuthorsVince Kelly1
Estimated H-index: 1
Published on Mar 1, 2005in Nature43.07
J. Michael Beman17
Estimated H-index: 17
,
Kevin R. Arrigo59
Estimated H-index: 59
,
Pamela A. Matson74
Estimated H-index: 74
(Stanford University)
Runoff of nutrients from agricultural regions and cities are a growing threat to the world's oceans, as highlighted in the Pew Oceans Commission report ( www.pewoceans.org ) and in the UN Environment Programme's Global Environment Outlook Year Book 2004, which identifies 150 oxygen-starved marine ‘dead zones’. A five-year study of the Gulf of California highlights just how vulnerable nitrogen-deficient areas of the oceans are to nitrogen pollution. Here, within days of fertilizer application to ...
Published on Mar 1, 2005in Harmful Algae5.01
Arturo P. Sierra-Beltrán12
Estimated H-index: 12
(CSIC: Spanish National Research Council),
Roberto Cortés-Altamirano6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UNAM: National Autonomous University of Mexico),
M.C. Cortés-Lara2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Guadalajara)
Prorocentrum minimum is a planktonic dinoflagellate known to produce red tides that can be harmful. To recognize localities and understand occurrences of Prorocentrum minimum blooms in Mexico, published data of plankton from 1942 to present, as well as unpublished data from the authors, were reviewed. Studies and reports covered marine and coastal waters of Mexico during different periods. Presence of P. minimum were reported in the Pacific coast, Gulf of California, Gulf of Mexico, and the Cari...
Published on Feb 14, 2005in Journal of Plankton Research2.21
Stéphane L’Helguen2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
G. Slawyk1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
P. Le Corre11
Estimated H-index: 11
to � 33% of the total regenerated N (urea + ammonium). The major part of urea regeneration was due to the nanoplankton (51%) and microplankton fractions (36%). Regeneration of urea in the picoplankton was detectable only from April to October and represented, on an average, 25% of the total urea regenerated during this period. Urea regeneration in micro- and nanoplankton fractions was mainly associated with ciliates and in the picoplancton fraction with bacteria.
Published on Jan 1, 2005in Water Air and Soil Pollution1.77
Patricia M. Glibert60
Estimated H-index: 60
(UMD: University of Maryland, College Park),
T. Mark Trice5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Maryland Department of Natural Resources Police)
+ 1 AuthorsLois Lane1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)
Concentrations of dissolved urea were monitored in several Chesapeake Bay tributaries from 1998 to 2002. Urea is a commonly used agricultural fertilizer and is also a breakdown product of poultry manure, which is used as an additional source of fertilizer throughout the watershed. Two trends were apparent. First, in several of the tributaries, seasonal peaks in ambient urea concentration coincided with the periods of the year (early spring and mid summer) when agricultural applications are most ...
Published on Nov 1, 2004in Harmful Algae5.01
Todd M. Kana32
Estimated H-index: 32
(UMCES: University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science),
Michael W. Lomas42
Estimated H-index: 42
(Bermuda Biological Station for Research)
+ 2 AuthorsChristopher J. Gobler41
Estimated H-index: 41
(Stony Brook Southampton)
Abstract The influence of nutrient additions and sediment exchange on Aureococcus anophagefferens growth was studied using 200 l mesocosms deployed in situ at the Southampton College Marine Science Center in Long Island, New York. A. anophagefferens cell density increased in mesocosms with separate additions of the following materials: urea + glucose and desiccation-stressed Enteromorpha tissue. A decrease in A. anophagefferens cell density was observed in mesocosms with either no additions (con...
Published on Mar 1, 2004in Toxicon2.28
S Cheeyewleong8
Estimated H-index: 8
(SUA: Soka University of America),
Ai Murata6
Estimated H-index: 6
(SUA: Soka University of America)
+ 1 AuthorsSatoru Taguchi27
Estimated H-index: 27
(SUA: Soka University of America)
Abstract Nitrogen (N) supply in pulses was simulated by exposing Alexandrium tamarense which was acclimatized at low N concentration (6 μM-N) to sudden increase in concentrations of nitrate, ammonium and urea, and the variability in toxicity due to nutrient status of A. tamarense was examined. The toxin composition did not vary dramatically among the three N sources, however, ammonium induced the highest concentration of intracellular toxin, followed by urea and then nitrate. Therefore, populati...
Cited By321
Newest
Published on Jan 1, 2020
Soil enzymes play a crucial role in soil organic matter transformation and nutrient cycling. Enzyme productions are the result of soil microbial community expression and their metabolomic requirement. Understanding the presence and activity of the enzymes of C and N cycles in soil may have important implications on ecosystem disturbances and can help to understand the role of C and N cycling in sustainable soil management and sustaining agricultural productivity. Among the biological features, s...
Published on Oct 1, 2019in Water Research7.91
Qiuwen Chen17
Estimated H-index: 17
,
Min Wang1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 4 AuthorsLiuming Hu4
Estimated H-index: 4
Abstract The effects of three commonly bioavailable nitrogen (N) sources (nitrate, ammonium, and urea) on regulating the growth and microcystins (MCs) production of Microcystis aeruginosa ( M . aeruginosa ) at environmentally relevant concentrations were investigated from a physiological perspective. Changes in amino acid quotas as well as the transcripts of target genes associated with N metabolism ( ntcA , pipX and glnB ) and toxin formation ( mcyA and mcyD ) were determined. Results indicated...
Tong Zhang (CAU: China Agricultural University), Mengjie Hou1
Estimated H-index: 1
(CAU: China Agricultural University)
+ 1 AuthorsFei Tian1
Estimated H-index: 1
(CAU: China Agricultural University)
Abstract Food security has always been one of the most important goals for government at all levels in China. Although more fertilization is an effective solution, many other problems appeared with the overuse of fertilization, such as water pollution, soil compaction and so on. Thus, in order to provide suitable advice on fertilization, we used the combination of high-resolution thermal and visible images to evaluate the transpiration rate and canopy cover and identify the effects of fertilizat...
Published on Sep 4, 2019in Frontiers in Microbiology4.26
Théo Veaudor2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Corinne Cassier-Chauvat24
Estimated H-index: 24
,
Franck Chauvat25
Estimated H-index: 25
(Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives)
Cyanobacteria are widely-diverse prokaryotes that colonize our planet. They use solar energy to assimilates huge amounts of atmospheric CO2 and produce a large part of the biomass and oxygen that sustain most life forms. Hence cyanobacteria are increasingly studied for basic research objective, as well as for the photosynthetic production of chemicals of industrial interests. One potential approach to reduce the cost of the future bioproduction processes will be to couple them with the treatment...
Published on Sep 1, 2019in Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry2.80
Madiha Kazmi2
Estimated H-index: 2
(QAU: Quaid-i-Azam University),
Imtiaz Khan16
Estimated H-index: 16
(University of Manchester)
+ 5 AuthorsAliya Ibrar13
Estimated H-index: 13
(QAU: Quaid-i-Azam University)
Abstract Although a diverse range of chemical entities offering striking therapeutic potential against urease enzyme has been reported, the key challenges (toxicity and safety) associated with these inhibitors create a large unmet medical need to unveil new, potent and safe inhibitors of urease enzyme. In this pursuit, the present study demonstrates the successful synthesis of carbazole-chalcone hybrids (4a-n) in good yields. The evaluation of the preliminary in vitro biological results showed t...
Published on 2019in Frontiers in Physiology3.20
Zhongyan Lu2
Estimated H-index: 2
(NAU: Nanjing Agricultural University),
Hong Shen2
Estimated H-index: 2
(NAU: Nanjing Agricultural University),
Zanming Shen9
Estimated H-index: 9
(NAU: Nanjing Agricultural University)
Two experiments were performed in this study. In Experiment 1, twenty goats were fed with an isonitrogenous diet, containing 28% Non-Fiber Carbohydrate (MNFC group, n=10) or 14% NFC (LNFC group, n=10). In the MNFC group, the ruminal concentration of SCFA increased, but pH declined. Compared with those in the LNFC group, the microbial protein synthesis in rumen and mRNA abundance of urea transporter B (UT-B) in rumen epithelium increased in the MNFC group, although serum urea-N (SUN) did not diff...
Published on 2019in Water2.52
Vincenzo Vaiano28
Estimated H-index: 28
,
Olga Sacco16
Estimated H-index: 16
+ 2 AuthorsDiana Sannino30
Estimated H-index: 30
The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of visible LED dimming duty-cycle modulation techniques in a photocatalytic system for urea degradation using a visible light photocatalyst immobilized on macroscopic supports. For this reason, the effect of different LED dimming techniques was investigated and compared in terms of urea degradation together with ammonia and nitrate production during the irradiation time. The experimental results evidenced that using a visible LED dimming modulation ...
Published on Aug 1, 2019in Soil Biology & Biochemistry5.29
Michaela K. Reay1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UoB: University of Bristol),
Christopher A. Yates3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UoB: University of Bristol)
+ 3 AuthorsRichard P. Evershed71
Estimated H-index: 71
Abstract Urea represents a common form of organic nitrogen (N) which is added to agricultural soils in large quantities in both cropping (e.g. fertiliser) and livestock (e.g. urine) systems. In addition, there is a small, dynamic ambient pool of urea in soil associated with metabolic functioning in the microbial community. The diacetyl monoxime (DAM) colorimetric method is routinely used to quantify urea in soil, however, it lacks specificity due to the potential to react with the ureido group (...
Published on Aug 1, 2019in Gene2.64
Kieng Soon Hii3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UM: University of Malaya),
Po Teen Lim16
Estimated H-index: 16
(UM: University of Malaya)
+ 3 AuthorsChui Pin Leaw16
Estimated H-index: 16
(UM: University of Malaya)
Abstract The marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum is known to produce saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning in human worldwide through consumption of the contaminated shellfish mollusks. Despite numerous studies on the growth physiology and saxitoxin production of this species, the knowledge on the molecular basis of nutrient uptakes in relation to toxin production in this species is limited. In this study, relative expressions of the high-affinity transporter genes of nitrate...
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