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Macromolecular crystal growth experiments on international microgravity laboratory – 1

Published on Oct 1, 1992in Protein Science 2.41
· DOI :10.1002/pro.5560011004
John Day15
Estimated H-index: 15
(UCR: University of California, Riverside),
Alexander McPherson53
Estimated H-index: 53
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
Abstract
Macromolecular crystal growth experiments, using satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) and canavalin from jack beans as samples, were conducted on a US Space Shuttle mission designated International Microgravity Laboratory — 1 (IML-1), flown January 22–29, 1992. Parallel experiments using identical samples were carried out in both a vapor diffusion-based device (PCG) and a liquid-liquid diffusion-based instrument (CRYOSTAT). The experiments in each device were run at 20–22 °C and at colder temperatures. Crystals were grown in virtually every trial, but the characteristics of the crystals were highly dependent on the crystallization technique employed and the temperature experience of the sample. In general, very good results, based on visual inspection of the crystals, were obtained in both PCG and CRYOSTAT. Unusually impressive results were, however, achieved for STMV in the CRYOSTAT instrument. STMV crystals grown in microgravity by liquid-liquid diffusion were more than 10-fold greater in total volume than any STMV crystals previously grown in the laboratory. X-ray diffraction data collected from eight STMV crystals grown in CRYOSTAT demonstrated a substantial improvement in diffraction quality over the entire resolution range when compared to data from crystals grown on Earth. In addition, the extent of the diffraction pattern for the STMV crystals grown in space extended to 1.8 A resolution, whereas the best crystals that were ever grown under conditions of Earth's gravity produced data limited to 2.3 A resolution. Other observations indicate that the growth of macromolecular crystals is indeed influenced by the presence or absence of gravity. These observations further suggest, consistent with earlier results, that the elimination of gravity provides a more favorable environment for such processes.
  • References (36)
  • Citations (59)
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References36
Newest
Published on Feb 1, 1993in Journal of Crystal Growth 1.74
A Malkin18
Estimated H-index: 18
(UCR: University of California, Riverside),
Josephine Cheung1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UCR: University of California, Riverside),
Alexander McPherson53
Estimated H-index: 53
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
Quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) was used to investigate homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation events in the crystallization of satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV). Under conditions of relatively moderate supersaturation (σ ≈ 1.00–1.40), the critical nuclear size supportive of stable crystal growth, Rc, was estimated from time dependent size distribution analyses to be in the range of 30 to 7 virus particles respectively. From the same data, the molar interfacial free energy and the ac...
37 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 1993in Journal of Crystal Growth 1.74
A Malkin18
Estimated H-index: 18
(UCR: University of California, Riverside),
Alexander McPherson53
Estimated H-index: 53
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
Abstract Quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) was used to investigate nucleation and post nucleation events in the crystallization of satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV). The diameter of monomer STMV was measured to be ≈ 16 nm, which corresponds well with data from electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction results. The data suggests that the rate limiting factor in STMV crystal growth is the diffusion of virus clusters to the growing crystal nucleus rather than the probability of incorporatio...
18 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1992in Plant Molecular Biology 3.54
Joseph D. Ng3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UCR: University of California, Riverside),
Timothy Stinchcombe1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
+ 2 AuthorsAlexander McPherson53
Estimated H-index: 53
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
3 Citations Source Cite
J. A. Dodds1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
12 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 1991in Journal of Crystal Growth 1.74
Stanley Koszelak12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UCR: University of California, Riverside),
David Martin33
Estimated H-index: 33
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
+ 1 AuthorsAlexander McPherson53
Estimated H-index: 53
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
Abstract Time lapse video microscopy has been used to make qualitative observations of the events that transpire during normal and abnormal protein crystal growth. It has also been used to make quantitative assessments of growth rates for a variety of different protein crystals. From analyses of the growth rates, we have estimated that in the most rapidly growing crystals we have recorded, as many as 20 layers of protein molecules add to a single crystal face per second. In the slowest cases of ...
21 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 1991in Journal of Crystal Growth 1.74
Lawrence J. DeLucas24
Estimated H-index: 24
,
Craig D. Smith14
Estimated H-index: 14
+ 21 AuthorsF. Raymond Salemme2
Estimated H-index: 2
(DuPont)
Abstract Recent advances in protein crystallography have significantly shortened the time and labor required to determine the three-dimensional structures of macromolecules once good crystals are available. Crystal growth has become a major bottleneck in further development of protein crystallography. Proteins and other biological macromolecules are notoriously difficult to crystallize. Even when usable crystals are obtained, the crystals of essentially all proteins and other biological macromol...
34 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 1991in Journal of Crystal Growth 1.74
Lawrence J. DeLucas24
Estimated H-index: 24
,
Graig D. Smith1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 4 AuthorsCharles E. Bugg35
Estimated H-index: 35
Abstract Protein crystal growth experiments have been performed on a series of US shuttle missions. Crystallographic studies of proteins and nucleic acids have played key roles in establishing the structural foundations of molecular biology and biochemistry and for revealing structure/function relationships that are of major importance in understanding how macromolecules operate in biological systems. A number of major advances in the technology involved in determining protein structures have sh...
11 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1991in Advances in Space Research 1.53
Alexander McPherson53
Estimated H-index: 53
(UCR: University of California, Riverside),
Aaron Greenwood10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UCR: University of California, Riverside),
John Day15
Estimated H-index: 15
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
Abstract Based on the results of microgravity crystallization experiments using the protein canavalin aboard four separate U.S. space shuttle missions, we present visual observations and diffraction data that support the contention that protein crystals of improved quality can be obtained in a microgravity environment. With canavalin, no significant increase in resolution was noted, but an overall improvement in diffraction quality, as judged by statistical analyses of the data, was clear. We pr...
11 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1991in Phytopathology 3.04
R. A. Valverde2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
J. A. Heick2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
J. A. Dodds2
Estimated H-index: 2
Satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) was detected frequently in California in association with TMV-U5 in naturally infected plants of Nicotiana glauca. Replication of STMV was not helper virus specific because eight tobamoviruses were able to support its replication in experimental infections in hosts that included crop plants such as tobacco and tomato. Two other tobamoviruses as well as several taxonomically distinct viruses could not serve as a helper. Infection with STMV did not alter sympt...
22 Citations Source Cite
Cited By59
Newest
Published on Oct 24, 2018
Yong Yu1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Kai Li5
Estimated H-index: 5
+ 1 AuthorsJi-Cheng Li1
Estimated H-index: 1
Space is expected to be a convection-free, quiescent environment for the production of large-size and high-quality protein crystals. However, the mechanisms by which the diffusion environment in space improves the quality of the protein crystals are not fully understood. The interior of a microfluidic device can be used to simulate a microgravity environment to investigate the protein crystallization mechanism that occurs in space. In the present study, lysozyme crystals were grown in a prototyp...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 1, 2018in International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 3.89
Takumi Watanabe1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Ridai: Tokyo University of Science),
Tomohiko Takakusagi2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Ridai: Tokyo University of Science)
+ 5 AuthorsSatoshi Matsumoto8
Estimated H-index: 8
(JAXA: Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency)
Abstract Thermocapillary-driven convection in a hanging droplet is experimentally investigated under normal- and micro-gravity conditions. A droplet is hung on a heated cylindrical rod facing downward, and another rod cooled is placed just beneath the droplet to create the designated temperature difference between both ends of the droplet. A transition of the flow field from a two-dimensional axisymmetric ‘steady’ flow to three-dimensional time-dependent ‘oscillatory’ ones by increasing temperat...
2 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 21, 2017in Langmuir 3.79
Tomohiko Takakusagi2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Ichiro Ueno13
Estimated H-index: 13
We focus on the flow patterns and resultant structures of suspended solid particles in a hanging droplet caused by thermocapillary effect. A droplet is hung on a heated cylindrical rod facing downward, and another rod cooled is placed just beneath the droplet to create the temperature difference between the both ends of the droplet. As the temperature difference increases, the induced flow exhibits transitions from an axisymmetric time-independent ‘steady’ state to three-dimensional time-depende...
2 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2017
Günter Ruyters1
Estimated H-index: 1
(DLR: German Aerospace Center),
Christian Betzel38
Estimated H-index: 38
(UHH: University of Hamburg)
The utilization of microgravity for improving protein crystallization and thereby structure determination started in the early 1980s onboard of TEXUS sounding rockets and of the US Space Shuttle. After the successful pioneering work by Prof. Littke, especially the German space life sciences program put much effort into this topic. In spite of some technical and methodological drawbacks, early successes could be obtained as well. In some cases, microgravity experiments enabled crystallization of ...
Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 2016in Crystallography Reports 0.76
Yu. A. Dyakova3
Estimated H-index: 3
(RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences),
M. A. Marchenkova7
Estimated H-index: 7
(RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)
The possibilities of significantly improving the quality of planar systems based on photoactive porphyrin–fullerene dyads, layers based on cytochrome c and cardiolipin, and lysozyme crystals and films using a complex of in situ X-ray methods and simulation are described. The potential of X-ray phase-sensitive and surface-sensitive methods developed by M.V. Koval’chuk and researchers from his school in monitoring all stages of synthesis of partially ordered organic structure is demonstrated. This...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 6, 2016in Crystal Growth & Design 3.97
Mikhail Kovalchuk7
Estimated H-index: 7
,
A. E. Blagov7
Estimated H-index: 7
+ 6 AuthorsVladimir V. Volkov1
Estimated H-index: 1
From the base structure of tetragonal lysozyme crystals, the octamer cluster was selected as the possible element of crystal growth. The proposed model was verified by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements of lysozyme solutions. The results showed a noticeable presence of lysozyme dimers and octamers under crystallization conditions and the total absence of oligomers under conditions where crystal growth was impossible.
15 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2016in Review of Scientific Instruments 1.43
Tomoya Yamazaki6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
Katsuo Tsukamoto21
Estimated H-index: 21
+ 6 AuthorsYuki Kimura13
Estimated H-index: 13
To clarify the growth mechanism of a protein crystal, it is essential to measure its growth rate with respect to the supersaturation. We developed a compartment (growth cell) for measuring the growth rate (<0.1 nm s−1) of the face of a protein crystal at a controlled supersaturation by interferometry over a period of half a year in space. The growth cell mainly consists of quartz glass, in which the growth solution and a seed crystal are enclosed by capillaries, the screw sample holder, and a he...
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Published on Nov 1, 2015
Alexander McPherson53
Estimated H-index: 53
,
Lawrence J. DeLucas24
Estimated H-index: 24
7 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 31, 2015in Russian Chemical Reviews 3.99
Konstantin M. Boyko8
Estimated H-index: 8
(RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences),
Vladimir O. Popov19
Estimated H-index: 19
(RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences),
M. V. Kovalchuk11
Estimated H-index: 11
(RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)
9 Citations Source Cite
Joseph D. Ng13
Estimated H-index: 13
(UAH: University of Alabama in Huntsville),
James K. Baird14
Estimated H-index: 14
(UAH: University of Alabama in Huntsville)
+ 3 AuthorsSijay Huang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UAH: University of Alabama in Huntsville)
Neutron macromolecular crystallography (NMC) is the prevailing method for the accurate determination of the positions of H atoms in macromolecules. As neutron sources are becoming more available to general users, finding means to optimize the growth of protein crystals to sizes suitable for NMC is extremely important. Historically, much has been learned about growing crystals for X-ray diffraction. However, owing to new-generation synchrotron X-ray facilities and sensitive detectors, protein cry...
10 Citations Source Cite