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Empirical evidence for source–sink populations: a review on occurrence, assessments and implications

Published on Aug 1, 2016in Biological Reviews 11.70
· DOI :10.1111/brv.12195
Roman Furrer2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Swiss Ornithological Institute),
Gilberto Pasinelli20
Estimated H-index: 20
(Swiss Ornithological Institute)
Assessing the role of local populations in a landscape context has become increasingly important in the fields of conservation biology and ecology. A growing number of studies attempt to determine the source–sink status of local populations. As the source–sink concept is commonly used for management decisions in nature conservation, accurate assessment approaches are crucial. Based on a systematic literature review of studies published between 2002 and 2013, we evaluated a priori predictions on methodological and biological factors that may influence the occurrence of source or sink populations. The review yielded 90 assessments from 73 publications that included qualitative and quantitative evidence for either source or sink population(s) for one or multiple species. Overall, sink populations tended to occur more often than source populations. Moreover, the occurrence of source or sink populations differed among taxonomic classes. Sinks were more often found than sources in mammals, while there was a non-significant trend for the opposite to be true for amphibians. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the occurrence of sources was positively related to connectivity of local populations. Our review furthermore highlights that more than 25 years after Pulliam's widely cited publication on ‘sources, sinks, and population regulation’, in-depth assessments of the source–sink status of populations based on combined consideration of demographic parameters such as fecundity, survival, emigration and immigration are still scarce. To increase our understanding of source–sink systems from ecological, evolutionary and conservation-related perspectives, we recommend that forthcoming studies on source–sink dynamics should pay more attention to the study design (i.e. connectivity of study populations) and that the assessment of the source–sink status of local populations is based on λ values calculated from demographic rates.
  • References (128)
  • Citations (19)
Published on Dec 1, 2014in Methods in Ecology and Evolution 6.36
Michael Schaub40
Estimated H-index: 40
(Swiss Ornithological Institute),
J. Andrew Royle57
Estimated H-index: 57
(Patuxent Wildlife Research Center)
Summary Survival is often estimated from capture–recapture data using Cormack–Jolly–Seber (CJS) models, where mortality and emigration cannot be distinguished, and the estimated apparent survival probability is the product of the probabilities of true survival and of study area fidelity. Consequently, apparent survival is lower than true survival unless study area fidelity equals one. Underestimation of true survival from capture–recapture data is a main limitation of the method. We develop a sp...
65 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2014in Oecologia 3.13
Res Altwegg25
Estimated H-index: 25
(UCT: University of Cape Town),
Claire Doutrelant23
Estimated H-index: 23
(CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique)
+ 2 AuthorsRita Covas17
Estimated H-index: 17
(UCT: University of Cape Town)
Population trends are determined by gains through reproduction and immigration, and losses through mortality and emigration. These demographic quantities and resulting population dynamics are affected by different external and internal drivers. We examined how these demographic quantities were affected by weather, research-induced disturbance, local density, colony site and year in a metapopulation of 17 sociable weaver (Philetairus socius) colonies over 17 years of study (4 years for reproducti...
14 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 1, 2013in Ecology 4.62
Michael Schaub40
Estimated H-index: 40
(Swiss Ornithological Institute),
Hans Jakober7
Estimated H-index: 7
Wolfgang Stauber7
Estimated H-index: 7
A mechanistic understanding of the dynamics of populations requires knowledge about the variation of the underlying demographic rates and about the reasons for their variability. In geographically open populations, immigration is often necessary to prevent declines, but little is known about whether immigration can contribute to its regulation. We studied the dynamics of a Red-backed Shrike population (Lanius collurio) over 36 years in Germany with a Bayesian integrated population model. We esti...
53 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 2013in Biological Reviews 11.70
Michel Loreau70
Estimated H-index: 70
(CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique),
Tanguy Daufresne17
Estimated H-index: 17
+ 6 AuthorsNicolas Mouquet44
Estimated H-index: 44
(CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique)
The paired source and sink concepts are used increasingly in ecology and Earth sciences, but they have evolved in divergent directions, hampering communication across disciplines. We propose a conceptual framework that unifies existing definitions, and review their most significant consequences for the various disciplines. A general definition of the source and sink concepts that transcends disciplines is based on net flows between the components of a system: a source is a subsystem that is a ne...
37 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2013in Biological Conservation 4.66
Jesse Newby3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UM: University of Montana),
L. Scott Mills34
Estimated H-index: 34
(UM: University of Montana)
+ 5 AuthorsRich DeSimone2
Estimated H-index: 2
An understanding of how stressors affect dispersal attributes and the contribution of local populations to multi-population dynamics are of immediate value to basic and applied ecology. Puma (Puma concolor) populations are expected to be influenced by inter-population movements and susceptible to humaninduced source–sink dynamics. Using long-term datasets we quantified the contribution of two puma populations to operationally define them as sources or sinks. The puma population in the Northern G...
21 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 20, 2013in PLOS ONE 2.77
Petter Glorvigen3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Hedmark University College),
Harry P. Andreassen27
Estimated H-index: 27
(Hedmark University College),
Rolf A. Ims55
Estimated H-index: 55
(University of Tromsø)
The role of local habitat geometry (habitat area and isolation) in predicting species distribution has become an increasingly more important issue, because habitat loss and fragmentation cause species range contraction and extinction. However, it has also become clear that other factors, in particular regional factors (environmental stochasticity and regional population dynamics), should be taken into account when predicting colonisation and extinction. In a live trapping study of a mainland-isl...
6 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2012in Ecology and Evolution 2.34
David Roshier19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Deakin University),
Robert Heinsohn35
Estimated H-index: 35
(ANU: Australian National University)
+ 2 AuthorsLeo Joseph31
Estimated H-index: 31
(CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)
There are many large, easy-to-observe anseriform birds (ducks, geese, and swans) in northern Australia and New Guinea and they often gather in large numbers. Yet, the structure of their populations and their regional movements are poorly understood. Lack of understanding of population structure limits our capacity to understand source-sink dynamics relevant to their conservation or assess risks associated with avian-borne pathogens, in particular, avian influenza for which waterfowl are the main...
9 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2012in Journal of Animal Ecology 4.46
Katrine Turgeon9
Estimated H-index: 9
(McGill University),
Donald L. Kramer48
Estimated H-index: 48
(McGill University)
Summary 1. Populations experiencing localized mortality can recover in the short term by net movement of individuals from adjacent areas, a process called compensatory immigration or spillover. Little is known about the factors influencing the magnitude of compensatory immigration or its impact on source populations. Such information is important for understanding metapopulation dynamics, the use of protected areas for conservation, management of exploited populations and pest control. 2. Using ...
22 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 2012in Population Ecology 1.64
Christian Kerbiriou18
Estimated H-index: 18
Isabelle Le Viol15
Estimated H-index: 15
+ 1 AuthorsAlexandre Robert21
Estimated H-index: 21
In the context of global changes, defining the source-sink dynamics of populations of emblematic spe- cies, such as seabirds, within the limits of their distribution range is often crucial to optimize the priorities of surveys and conservation management, especially in protected areas. However, ringing is often not possible and only simple survey methods, such as the 'apparently occupied sites' method, can be utilized by managers of protected areas and threatened species. Using data collected be...
4 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 2012in Oikos 3.71
Byju N. Govindan2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Purdue University),
Marc Kéry1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Purdue University),
Robert K. Swihart42
Estimated H-index: 42
(Purdue University)
Prior studies on species-specific responses to habitat alteration have demonstrated that niche breadth is positively associated with patch occupancy rates in landscapes fragmented by agriculture. However, these studies generally have focused on vertebrates and relied upon data collected at a single point in time, neglecting dynamic processes that could alter inferences. We studied the effects of host selection and forest fragmentation on population dynamics of acorn weevils Curculio, the primary...
16 Citations Source Cite
Cited By19
Published on May 23, 2019in Journal of Mammalogy 2.14
Douglas A. Kelt29
Estimated H-index: 29
(UC Davis: University of California, Davis),
Edward J. Heske26
Estimated H-index: 26
(UNM: University of New Mexico)
+ 7 AuthorsStefan Sommer10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UZH: University of Zurich)
Source Cite
Published on May 10, 2019in Ecology 4.62
Floriane Plard13
Estimated H-index: 13
(UCBL: Claude Bernard University Lyon 1),
Rémi Fay1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Swiss Ornithological Institute)
+ 2 AuthorsMichael Schaub40
Estimated H-index: 40
(Swiss Ornithological Institute)
2 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2019in Landscape Ecology 3.83
Julie A. Heinrichs7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UW: University of Washington),
Joshua J. Lawler41
Estimated H-index: 41
(UW: University of Washington)
+ 3 AuthorsAmy Bleisch (UW: University of Washington)
Context Management actions and land-use change can disrupt interdependent population processes, re-define population networks, and change source-sink dynamics. Yet we know little about the types of changes that can de-stabilize source-sink dynamics and how such changes could affect management decisions.
Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2019in Diversity and Distributions 4.61
Stanislav Rada2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ),
Oliver Schweiger36
Estimated H-index: 36
(Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ)
+ 4 AuthorsMartin Musche12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ)
2 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2019in Journal of Animal Ecology 4.46
Adam Seward (RSPB: Royal Society for the Protection of Birds), Norman Ratcliffe22
Estimated H-index: 22
(BAS: British Antarctic Survey)
+ 6 AuthorsMark Bolton21
Estimated H-index: 21
(RSPB: Royal Society for the Protection of Birds)
Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2018in Neotropical Entomology 0.89
B Walter1
Estimated H-index: 1
Agnieszka Graclik2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 1 AuthorsOskar Wasielewski7
Estimated H-index: 7
A high rate of human-induced disturbance of tropical ecosystems results in enormous loss of biodiversity due to local extinctions. Yet, mechanisms at the population level that lead to the extinction are still poorly understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that human-induced disturbance results in smaller amount of nesting sites for wood-dwelling arthropods that leads to smaller population size and diminished reproduction, and therefore, may promote local extinctions. We completed censuses in l...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2018in Ecosphere 2.67
Ross Whippo1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Smithsonian Institution),
Nicole S. Knight1
Estimated H-index: 1
(McGill University)
+ 3 AuthorsMary I. O'Connor21
Estimated H-index: 21
(UBC: University of British Columbia)
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 3, 2018in bioRxiv
Florian Lavigne1
Estimated H-index: 1
(AMU: Aix-Marseille University),
Guillaume Martin22
Estimated H-index: 22
(CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique)
+ 2 AuthorsLionel Roques15
Estimated H-index: 15
(INRA: Institut national de la recherche agronomique)
The successful establishment of a population into a new empty habitat outside of its initial niche is a phenomenon akin to evolutionary rescue in the presence of immigration. It underlies a wide range of processes, such as biological invasions by alien organisms, host shifts in pathogens or the emergence of resistance to pesticides or antibiotics from untreated areas. In this study, we derive an analytically tractable framework to describe the coupled evolutionary and demographic dynamics of ase...
1 Citations Source Cite