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Empirical evidence for source–sink populations: a review on occurrence, assessments and implications

Published on Aug 1, 2016in Biological Reviews10.29
· DOI :10.1111/brv.12195
Roman Furrer2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Swiss Ornithological Institute),
Gilberto Pasinelli20
Estimated H-index: 20
(Swiss Ornithological Institute)
Cite
Abstract
Assessing the role of local populations in a landscape context has become increasingly important in the fields of conservation biology and ecology. A growing number of studies attempt to determine the source–sink status of local populations. As the source–sink concept is commonly used for management decisions in nature conservation, accurate assessment approaches are crucial. Based on a systematic literature review of studies published between 2002 and 2013, we evaluated a priori predictions on methodological and biological factors that may influence the occurrence of source or sink populations. The review yielded 90 assessments from 73 publications that included qualitative and quantitative evidence for either source or sink population(s) for one or multiple species. Overall, sink populations tended to occur more often than source populations. Moreover, the occurrence of source or sink populations differed among taxonomic classes. Sinks were more often found than sources in mammals, while there was a non-significant trend for the opposite to be true for amphibians. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the occurrence of sources was positively related to connectivity of local populations. Our review furthermore highlights that more than 25 years after Pulliam's widely cited publication on ‘sources, sinks, and population regulation’, in-depth assessments of the source–sink status of populations based on combined consideration of demographic parameters such as fecundity, survival, emigration and immigration are still scarce. To increase our understanding of source–sink systems from ecological, evolutionary and conservation-related perspectives, we recommend that forthcoming studies on source–sink dynamics should pay more attention to the study design (i.e. connectivity of study populations) and that the assessment of the source–sink status of local populations is based on λ values calculated from demographic rates.
  • References (128)
  • Citations (19)
Cite
References128
Newest
Published on Dec 1, 2014in Methods in Ecology and Evolution7.10
Michael Schaub40
Estimated H-index: 40
(Swiss Ornithological Institute),
J. Andrew Royle57
Estimated H-index: 57
(Patuxent Wildlife Research Center)
Summary Survival is often estimated from capture–recapture data using Cormack–Jolly–Seber (CJS) models, where mortality and emigration cannot be distinguished, and the estimated apparent survival probability is the product of the probabilities of true survival and of study area fidelity. Consequently, apparent survival is lower than true survival unless study area fidelity equals one. Underestimation of true survival from capture–recapture data is a main limitation of the method. We develop a sp...
Published on Feb 1, 2014in Oecologia2.92
Res Altwegg25
Estimated H-index: 25
(UCT: University of Cape Town),
Claire Doutrelant23
Estimated H-index: 23
(CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique)
+ 2 AuthorsRita Covas17
Estimated H-index: 17
(UCT: University of Cape Town)
Population trends are determined by gains through reproduction and immigration, and losses through mortality and emigration. These demographic quantities and resulting population dynamics are affected by different external and internal drivers. We examined how these demographic quantities were affected by weather, research-induced disturbance, local density, colony site and year in a metapopulation of 17 sociable weaver (Philetairus socius) colonies over 17 years of study (4 years for reproducti...
Published on Aug 1, 2013in Ecology4.29
Michael Schaub40
Estimated H-index: 40
(Swiss Ornithological Institute),
Hans Jakober7
Estimated H-index: 7
,
Wolfgang Stauber7
Estimated H-index: 7
A mechanistic understanding of the dynamics of populations requires knowledge about the variation of the underlying demographic rates and about the reasons for their variability. In geographically open populations, immigration is often necessary to prevent declines, but little is known about whether immigration can contribute to its regulation. We studied the dynamics of a Red-backed Shrike population (Lanius collurio) over 36 years in Germany with a Bayesian integrated population model. We esti...
Published on May 1, 2013in Biological Reviews10.29
Michel Loreau70
Estimated H-index: 70
(CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique),
Tanguy Daufresne17
Estimated H-index: 17
+ 6 AuthorsNicolas Mouquet44
Estimated H-index: 44
(CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique)
The paired source and sink concepts are used increasingly in ecology and Earth sciences, but they have evolved in divergent directions, hampering communication across disciplines. We propose a conceptual framework that unifies existing definitions, and review their most significant consequences for the various disciplines. A general definition of the source and sink concepts that transcends disciplines is based on net flows between the components of a system: a source is a subsystem that is a ne...
Published on Mar 1, 2013in Biological Conservation4.45
Jesse Newby3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UM: University of Montana),
L. Scott Mills34
Estimated H-index: 34
(UM: University of Montana)
+ 5 AuthorsRich DeSimone2
Estimated H-index: 2
An understanding of how stressors affect dispersal attributes and the contribution of local populations to multi-population dynamics are of immediate value to basic and applied ecology. Puma (Puma concolor) populations are expected to be influenced by inter-population movements and susceptible to humaninduced source–sink dynamics. Using long-term datasets we quantified the contribution of two puma populations to operationally define them as sources or sinks. The puma population in the Northern G...
Published on Feb 20, 2013in PLOS ONE2.78
Petter Glorvigen3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Hedmark University College),
Harry P. Andreassen27
Estimated H-index: 27
(Hedmark University College),
Rolf A. Ims55
Estimated H-index: 55
(University of Tromsø)
The role of local habitat geometry (habitat area and isolation) in predicting species distribution has become an increasingly more important issue, because habitat loss and fragmentation cause species range contraction and extinction. However, it has also become clear that other factors, in particular regional factors (environmental stochasticity and regional population dynamics), should be taken into account when predicting colonisation and extinction. In a live trapping study of a mainland-isl...
Published on Nov 1, 2012in Ecology and Evolution2.42
David Roshier19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Deakin University),
Robert Heinsohn35
Estimated H-index: 35
(ANU: Australian National University)
+ 2 AuthorsLeo Joseph31
Estimated H-index: 31
(CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)
There are many large, easy-to-observe anseriform birds (ducks, geese, and swans) in northern Australia and New Guinea and they often gather in large numbers. Yet, the structure of their populations and their regional movements are poorly understood. Lack of understanding of population structure limits our capacity to understand source-sink dynamics relevant to their conservation or assess risks associated with avian-borne pathogens, in particular, avian influenza for which waterfowl are the main...
Published on Nov 1, 2012in Journal of Animal Ecology4.36
Katrine Turgeon9
Estimated H-index: 9
(McGill University),
Donald L. Kramer48
Estimated H-index: 48
(McGill University)
Summary 1. Populations experiencing localized mortality can recover in the short term by net movement of individuals from adjacent areas, a process called compensatory immigration or spillover. Little is known about the factors influencing the magnitude of compensatory immigration or its impact on source populations. Such information is important for understanding metapopulation dynamics, the use of protected areas for conservation, management of exploited populations and pest control. 2. Using ...
Published on Apr 1, 2012in Population Ecology1.51
Christian Kerbiriou18
Estimated H-index: 18
,
Isabelle Le Viol15
Estimated H-index: 15
+ 1 AuthorsAlexandre Robert21
Estimated H-index: 21
In the context of global changes, defining the source-sink dynamics of populations of emblematic spe- cies, such as seabirds, within the limits of their distribution range is often crucial to optimize the priorities of surveys and conservation management, especially in protected areas. However, ringing is often not possible and only simple survey methods, such as the 'apparently occupied sites' method, can be utilized by managers of protected areas and threatened species. Using data collected be...
Published on Apr 1, 2012in Oikos3.47
Byju N. Govindan2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Purdue University),
Marc Kéry1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Purdue University),
Robert K. Swihart42
Estimated H-index: 42
(Purdue University)
Prior studies on species-specific responses to habitat alteration have demonstrated that niche breadth is positively associated with patch occupancy rates in landscapes fragmented by agriculture. However, these studies generally have focused on vertebrates and relied upon data collected at a single point in time, neglecting dynamic processes that could alter inferences. We studied the effects of host selection and forest fragmentation on population dynamics of acorn weevils Curculio, the primary...
Cited By19
Newest
Published on Jun 27, 2019in Evolutionary Applications5.04
Maud Duranton1
Estimated H-index: 1
(CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique),
François Bonhomme52
Estimated H-index: 52
(CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique),
Pierre-Alexandre Gagnaire3
Estimated H-index: 3
(CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique)
Published on Sep 25, 2019in Molecular Ecology5.86
Nadège Bélouard (University of Rennes), Jean-Marc Paillisson15
Estimated H-index: 15
(University of Rennes)
+ 2 AuthorsEric J. Petit27
Estimated H-index: 27
(INRA: Institut national de la recherche agronomique)
Published on Jun 13, 2019
Julie A. Heinrichs7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UW: University of Washington),
Lauren E. Walker2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UW: University of Washington)
+ 3 AuthorsAmy Bleisch (UW: University of Washington)
Purpose of Review The source-sink paradigm has been a powerful tool for focusing theoretical and empirical explorations of population dynamics in heterogeneous landscapes. The prevalence of suspected source-sink dynamics in empirical studies would lead to the conclusion that sources and sinks are common. However, important questions remain about how source-sink dynamics have been assessed in past studies and the degree to which current approaches apply to atypical populations and dynamic landsca...
Published on 2019in Biological Reviews10.29
Alexandre Millon13
Estimated H-index: 13
(AMU: Aix-Marseille University),
Xavier Lambin47
Estimated H-index: 47
(Aberd.: University of Aberdeen)
+ 1 AuthorsMichael Schaub40
Estimated H-index: 40
(Swiss Ornithological Institute)
Published on Jul 23, 2019in Evolutionary Applications5.04
Steven P. Brady6
Estimated H-index: 6
(SCSU: Southern Connecticut State University),
Daniel I. Bolnick (UConn: University of Connecticut)+ 13 AuthorsFrédéric Guichard21
Estimated H-index: 21
(McGill University)
Published on Jul 10, 2019in American Midland Naturalist0.66
Robert N. Rosenfield18
Estimated H-index: 18
(UWSP: University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point),
Madeline G. Hardin1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UWSP: University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point)
+ 2 AuthorsPaul Frater (University of Iceland)
Published on Jun 26, 2019
Karen Bisschop (UGent: Ghent University), Frederik Mortier3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UGent: Ghent University)
+ 1 AuthorsDries Bonte33
Estimated H-index: 33
(UGent: Ghent University)
Local adaptation is determined by the strength of selection and the level of gene flow within heterogeneous landscapes. The presence of benign habitat can act as an evolutionary stepping stone for local adaptation to challenging environments by providing the necessary genetic variation. At the same time, migration load from benign habitats will hinder adaptation. In a community context, interspecific competition is expected to select against maladapted migrants, hence reducing migration load and...
Published on May 23, 2019in Journal of Mammalogy2.13
Douglas A. Kelt29
Estimated H-index: 29
(UC Davis: University of California, Davis),
Edward J. Heske26
Estimated H-index: 26
(UNM: University of New Mexico)
+ 7 AuthorsStefan Sommer10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UZH: University of Zurich)
Published on May 10, 2019in Ecology4.29
Floriane Plard13
Estimated H-index: 13
(UCBL: Claude Bernard University Lyon 1),
Rémi Fay1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Swiss Ornithological Institute)
+ 2 AuthorsMichael Schaub40
Estimated H-index: 40
(Swiss Ornithological Institute)
Published on Feb 1, 2019in Landscape Ecology4.35
Julie A. Heinrichs7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UW: University of Washington),
Joshua J. Lawler41
Estimated H-index: 41
(UW: University of Washington)
+ 3 AuthorsAmy Bleisch (UW: University of Washington)
Context Management actions and land-use change can disrupt interdependent population processes, re-define population networks, and change source-sink dynamics. Yet we know little about the types of changes that can de-stabilize source-sink dynamics and how such changes could affect management decisions.
View next paperUnifying sources and sinks in ecology and Earth sciences