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Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies.

Published on Jan 1, 2003in Journal of Applied Psychology5.07
· DOI :10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879
Philip M. Podsakoff53
Estimated H-index: 53
(IU: Indiana University Bloomington),
Scott B. MacKenzie47
Estimated H-index: 47
(IU: Indiana University Bloomington)
+ 1 AuthorsNathan P. Podsakoff21
Estimated H-index: 21
(UF: University of Florida)
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Abstract
Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.
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  • References (140)
  • Citations (24934)
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References140
Newest
Published on Mar 1, 1977in Administrative Science Quarterly8.02
Marvin D. Dunnette1
Estimated H-index: 1
An up-to-date handbook on conceptual and methodological issues relevant to the study of industrial and organizational behavior. Chapters contributed by leading experts from the academic and business communities cover substantive issues at both the individual and organizational level, in both theoretical and practical terms.
Published on Jan 1, 2002in Multivariate Behavioral Research2.14
Ana Hernández9
Estimated H-index: 9
,
Vicente González-Romá19
Estimated H-index: 19
The aim of this article is to address the question of whether empirical multitraitmultioccasion data conform more closely to multiplicative models than to additive models. Four additive models and two versions of the multiplicative Direct Product (DP) model (Browne, 1984) are tested. A set of 21 multitrait-multioccasion matrices is analyzed by means of LISREL 8 (Joreskog & Sorbom, 1993). The results obtained across different models are evaluated according to plausibility of solutions and goodnes...
Published on Jan 1, 2002in Psychological Methods8.19
Charles E. Lance36
Estimated H-index: 36
,
Carrie L. Noble1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Steven E. Scullen7
Estimated H-index: 7
(NCSU: North Carolina State University)
The correlated trait-correlated method (CT-CM) and correlated uniqueness (CU) confirmatory factor analysis models for multitrait-multimethod data are critiqued. Although the CU model often returns convergent and admissible factor solutions when the CT-CM model does not, the CU model is shown to have theoretical and substantive shortcomings. On the basis of this critique, the authors recommend that the CT-CM model be regarded as the generally preferred model and that the CU model be invoked only ...
Published on Jan 1, 2001in Journal of Applied Psychology5.07
Michael K. Lindell46
Estimated H-index: 46
(A&M: Texas A&M University),
David J. Whitney10
Estimated H-index: 10
(LBSU: California State University, Long Beach)
Cross-sectional studies of attitude-behavior relationships are vulnerable to the inflation of correlations by common method variance (CMV). Here, a model is presented that allows partial correlation analysis to adjust the observed correlations for CMV contamination and determine if conclusions about the statistical and practical significance of a predictor have been influenced by the presence of CMV. This method also suggests procedures for designing questionnaires to increase the precision of t...
Published on Nov 1, 2000in Industrial Marketing Management4.78
Preet S. Aulakh24
Estimated H-index: 24
,
Esra F. Gencturk9
Estimated H-index: 9
Abstract This article builds upon and extends previous control research by examining the effect of different control mechanisms on behavioral and economic performance in international principal–agent relationships. To this end, a contingency model is advanced and tested that explores the role governance structure plays in influencing the performance effects of different control mechanisms, as perceived by the principal. Empirical results based on a sample of U.S. firms support the proposed conti...
Published on Nov 1, 2000in Journal of Organizational Behavior5.00
Jay A. Conger40
Estimated H-index: 40
(SC: University of Southern California),
Rabindra N. Kanungo2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Clarkson University),
Sanjay T. Menon9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Clarkson University)
On the basis of the current theories of charismatic leadership, several possible follower effects were identified. It is hypothesized that followers of charismatic leaders could be distinguished by their greater reverence, trust, and satisfaction with their leader and by a heightened sense of collective identity, perceived group task performance, and feelings of empowerment. Using the Conger–Kanungo charismatic leadership scale and measures of the hypothesized follower effects, an empirical stud...
Published on Oct 1, 2000in Journal of Management9.06
Dawn S. Carlson38
Estimated H-index: 38
(Baylor University),
K. Michele Kacmar56
Estimated H-index: 56
(Florida State University College of Business)
The values an individual places on various life roles may have implications for experienced work–family conflict. Using an integrative model of work–family conflict, comparisons between 314 state government employees who highly valued work and those who highly valued family (measured by centrality, priorities, and importance) revealed a variety of differences with respect to the antecedents and consequences of experienced work–family conflict. These differences suggest that the addition of life ...
Published on Jul 1, 2000in The Journal of Psychology1.43
Theresa J. B. Kline23
Estimated H-index: 23
(U of C: University of Calgary),
Lorne M. Sulsky16
Estimated H-index: 16
(U of C: University of Calgary),
Sandra D. Rever-Moriyama1
Estimated H-index: 1
(U of C: University of Calgary)
Abstract The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how examining the bivariate correlations between items in self-report measures can assist in differentiating between possible common method variance vs. model specification errors. Specifically, social desirability was viewed as either a possible source of common method variance or as a theoretically meaningful construct that should be included in the model of interest (i.e., a specification error). In the first instance, LISREL was used, and...
Published on Jun 1, 2000in Human Relations3.37
Roderick D. Iverson31
Estimated H-index: 31
,
Catherine Maguire2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Melbourne)
Although the relationship between job and life satisfaction has attracted much attention, little research has been undertaken in geographically remote settings. The present study addresses this deficiency by testing a causal model that incorporates job-related, personal, environmental, and community-related variables. The LISREL results, based on a sample of 286 male employees from an open-cut coal mine in remote central Queensland, Australia, indicate that the community variables of family isol...
Published on Jun 1, 2000in Journal of Management9.06
Philip M. Podsakoff53
Estimated H-index: 53
(IU: Indiana University Bloomington),
Scott B. MacKenzie47
Estimated H-index: 47
(IU: Indiana University Bloomington)
+ 1 AuthorsDaniel G. Bachrach24
Estimated H-index: 24
(IU: Indiana University Bloomington)
The rapid growth of research on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) has resulted in some conceptual confusion about the nature of the construct, and made it difficult for all but the most avid readers to keep up with developments in this domain. This paper critically examines the literature on organizational citizenship behavior and other, related constructs. More specifically, it: (a) explores the conceptual similarities and differences between the various forms of “citizenship” behavio...
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Estimated H-index: 7
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Estimated H-index: 10
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+ 1 AuthorsMartin Joseph Gannon5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Edinburgh Napier University)
Abstract In response to the increasing ubiquity of social media platforms, improved consumer choice, and technological progress, the importance of consumer-generated content (CGC) continues to grow for organizations marketing their destinations, products, and services to tourists. Yet, despite the importance tourists place on CGC and information shared via social media, there remains a lack of academic focus in this area. To address this gap, we use a rigorous multi-step scale development proced...
Si Shi6
Estimated H-index: 6
(SWUFE: Southwestern University of Finance and Economics),
Yi Wang (SWUFE: Southwestern University of Finance and Economics)+ 1 AuthorsQian Zhang (SWUFE: Southwestern University of Finance and Economics)
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Estimated H-index: 4
(TUM: Technische Universität München)
+ 1 AuthorsTina Seidel23
Estimated H-index: 23
(TUM: Technische Universität München)
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Kenan Degirmenci4
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(QUT: Queensland University of Technology)
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Published on Feb 1, 2020in Tourism Management6.01
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Estimated H-index: 11
(UCLM: University of Castilla–La Mancha),
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Estimated H-index: 6
(UCLM: University of Castilla–La Mancha),
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Estimated H-index: 3
(UCLM: University of Castilla–La Mancha)
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Zhen Zhu (China University of Geosciences), Jing Zhao2
Estimated H-index: 2
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Estimated H-index: 13
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Abstract Using a process component lens, this paper decomposes an e-business process into technical, relational, and business components. We then draw on resource orchestration theory to identify two managerial actions, resources structuring and capabilities leveraging in using e-business process components, to explain how these three components work together to improve competitive performance in supply chain operations. Two interesting insights emerge from our empirical research corresponds to ...
Published on Jan 1, 2020
Information systems research provides increasing evidence that women and men differ in their use of information technology. However, research has not sufficiently explained why these differences exist. Using the theory of reasoned action and social role theory, this paper investigates gender differences in people’s decisions about information sharing in the context of social networking sites (SNSs). We developed a comparative model of the information-sharing decision process across genders and t...
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Estimated H-index: 1
(The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley),
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Published on Feb 1, 2020in Food Control4.25
Minh Hai Ngo (VNUHCM: Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City), Ran Liu (Kyushu University)+ 1 AuthorsSusumu Fukuda3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Kyushu University)
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