Expanding the utilization of sustainable plant products in aquafeeds: a review
Continued growth and intensi¢cation of aquaculture production depends upon the development of sustainable protein sources to replace ¢sh meal in aquafeeds. This document reviews various plant feedstuis, which currently are or potentially may be incorporated into aquafeeds to support the sustainable production of various ¢sh species in aquaculture. The plant feedstuis considered include oilseeds, legumes and cereal grains, which traditionally have been used as protein or energy concentrates as well as novel products developed through various processing technologies. The nutritional composition of these various feedstuis are considered along with the presence of any bioactive compounds that may positively or negatively aiect the target organism. Lipid composition of these feedstuis is not speci¢cally considered although it is recognized that incorporating lipid supplements in aquafeeds to achieve proper fatty acid pro¢les to meet the metabolic requirements of ¢sh and maximize human health bene¢ts are important aspects. Speci¢c strategies and techniques to optimize the nutritional composition of plant feedstuis and limit potentially adverse eiects of bioactive compounds are also described. Such information will provide a foundation for developing strategic research plans for increasing the use of plant feedstuis in aquaculture to reduce dependence of animal feedstuis and thereby enhance the sustainability of aquaculture.