Match!

Providing laying hens with perches: fulfilling behavioural needs but causing injury?

Published on Jul 1, 2009in British Poultry Science1.421
· DOI :10.1080/00071660903110844
V. Sandilands8
Estimated H-index: 8
(SAC: Scottish Agricultural College),
Victoria Sandilands10
Estimated H-index: 10
(SAC: Scottish Agricultural College)
+ 0 AuthorsNhc Sparks31
Estimated H-index: 31
(SAC: Scottish Agricultural College)
Abstract
1. The EU laying hen directive, which bans standard battery cages from 2012, has implications for animal welfare, particularly since housing laying hens in extensive systems, while increasing natural behaviour and improving bone strength, is associated with a greater level of bone fractures, predominantly of the keel bone, compared to birds housed in cages. 2. The aetiology and welfare consequences of keel and other bone fractures are not well understood and could have important implications for housing system designs. While proposed alterations to layer housing are based on the desire to fulfil behavioural needs and increase bone strength, there appears to have been little consideration of the effect of system on potential injury. 3. In addition, there are variations in how the directive is interpreted. For example, egg producers housing hens in extensive systems in Scotland and Northern Ireland must provide hens with aerial perches, whereas in England and Wales they do not. Aerial perches may be implica...
  • References (97)
  • Citations (56)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
87 Citations
69 Citations
6 Authors (T.B. Rodenburg, ..., Bart Sonck)
77 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
References97
Newest
#1E StruelensH-Index: 8
#2E. Van PouckeH-Index: 7
Last. Frank TuyttensH-Index: 26
view all 6 authors...
1. The use of cross-wise perches by laying hens was investigated in 8 groups of 6 hens. During a period of 5 weeks each group was exposed to 4 different perch arrangements: a single straight perch of 60 cm (P60), a 30-cm perch crossing the middle of another 30-cm perch (P30 + 30), crossing a 45-cm (P45 + 30) or crossing a 60-cm perch (P60 + 30). 2. Perch arrangement influenced perch use. Perch occupancy (the mean number of hens using the perches) was lowest in the P30 + 30 treatment during dayti...
7 CitationsSource
#1E StruelensH-Index: 8
#2Frank TuyttensH-Index: 26
Last. Bart SonckH-Index: 7
view all 11 authors...
1. The objective was to investigate the effect of cage height on perch height preference and perching behaviour in laying hens. Twelve groups of two hens and 12 groups of 14 hens were tested in furnished cages equipped with two wooden perches. These stepwise perches were designed such that hens could choose between 7 different heights (6, 11, 16, 21, 26, 31 and 36 cm). Day- and night-time perching behaviour was observed on 4 consecutive days with a different cage height each day: 150, 55, 50 and...
26 CitationsSource
The objective of the present study was to conduct a corresponding histological analysis of 162 macroscopically assessed keel bones (1:severe, 2:moderate, 3:slight, 4:no deformity). Four layer lines were used and hens were kept in furnished cages, small group systems (both allowing more activities due to the provision of perches) and an aviary system, which fully conformed to the EU standards. Investigations were carried out in the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th laying month of two experimental trials. I...
33 CitationsSource
#1Britta ScholzH-Index: 1
Evaluation of small group systems with elevated perches, furnished cages and an aviary system for laying hens with respect to bone strength, keel bone status, stress perception and egg quality parameters. Evaluierung von Kleingruppenhaltungen mit modifizierten Sitzstangenpositionen, ausgestalteten Kafigen und einer Volierenhaltung fur Legehennen im Hinblick auf Knochenfestigkeiten, Brustbeinstatus, Stressbelastung und Eiqualitatsparameter. The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the i...
1 Citations
#1Robert Fleming (The Roslin Institute)H-Index: 18
#2Heather McCormack (The Roslin Institute)H-Index: 15
Last. C C Whitehead (The Roslin Institute)H-Index: 12
view all 4 authors...
1. The effects upon bone quality of feeding limestone in flour or particulate form and housing type (cage or aviary) in lines of hens divergently selected for high (H) or low (L) bone strength over 7 generations were investigated. 2. As in previous generations, highly significant phenotypic differences between lines were observed in all measured bone traits at peak egg production (25 weeks) and towards the end of production (56 weeks) in both cage and aviary systems. 3. At 25 weeks there were no...
52 CitationsSource
#1A. VitsH-Index: 4
#2D. WeitzenbürgerH-Index: 4
Last. Ottmar DistlH-Index: 11
view all 4 authors...
The effects of 3 different furnished cage systems (Aviplus, Eurovent 625a, Eurovent 625A) on 2 different laying hen strains [Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL), Lohmann Brown (LB)] were examined for the traits of production, egg quality, bone strength, claw length, and keel bone status. Two trials were carried out in which all hens received identical feeding and management. In brown hens, the traits egg production per average hen housed, cracked eggs, feed conversion, egg weight, and humerus breakin...
84 CitationsSource
#1M. LeyendeckerH-Index: 1
#2H. HamannH-Index: 1
Last. Ottmar DistlH-Index: 31
view all 7 authors...
1. Tibia and humerus breaking strength of Lohmann Silver hybrids kept in conventional cages, furnished cages and an aviary with outdoor run were examined in two production cycles. Each trial lasted a full laying period; feeding, management and healthcare were identical for all hens. In both trials bone strength was investigated at the end of laying months 6, 9 and 14. 2. The objective was to determine if bone strength increases when hens are kept in alternative housing systems, especially in fur...
48 CitationsSource
#1C Moinard (Heriot-Watt University)H-Index: 5
#2Kenneth M.D. Rutherford (Heriot-Watt University)H-Index: 20
Last. Patrick R. Green (Heriot-Watt University)H-Index: 20
view all 6 authors...
Abstract Laying hens housed in extensive systems may be at risk of injury when many birds compete for use of the same perch space. Experiments were carried out to determine the space required by laying hens to move between obstructed perches. Eighty Lohmann Brown layer hens were reared in floor pens fitted with perches from 1 day of age. After the peak of lay (25 weeks of age), their ability to jump to and from perches obstructed either by inanimate objects or by live hens was assessed in four e...
10 CitationsSource
#1M D Fiddes (UoB: University of Bristol)H-Index: 1
#2S Le GresleyH-Index: 1
Last. K A StaffordH-Index: 1
view all 6 authors...
THE poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae feeds on resting birds, mainly during the night, and can cause anaemia, decreased egg production and, in extreme cases, death (Kirkwood 1967, 1968, Hoglund and others 1995). It has been implicated as a possible vector of various poultry diseases, such as Salmonella species and eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (Nordenfors and others 1999). D gallinae poses a potential risk to workers within the poultry house because it will bite human beings (Chauve...
55 CitationsSource
#1LJ WilkinsH-Index: 17
#2SJ PopeH-Index: 14
Last. Steven N BrownH-Index: 38
view all 8 authors...
9 Citations
Cited By56
Newest
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of keel bone deviations and feather damage of laying hens in two different free-range housing systems under commercial conditions. Both of the free-range systems had an indoor barn and an outdoor range area. The floor of the indoor barn consisted of litter and either perches (litter and perch, LP) or slats (litter and slats, LS). The hens of both flocks were raised under identical conditions in the same house during the rearing period and then divided...
Source
#1Ahmed B.A. Ali (Clemson University)H-Index: 6
#2Dana L.M. Campbell (CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)H-Index: 15
Last. Janice M. Siegford (MSU: Michigan State University)H-Index: 18
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Different strains of commercial laying hens have been molded by varying selection pressures, impacting their production, health, and behavior. Therefore, assumptions that all laying hen strains use the given resources within aviary systems similarly and maintain equal health and performance may be false. We investigated interactions among patterns of aviary resource-use by 2 strains of white and 2 strains of brown laying hens (4 units/strain, 144 hens/unit) with daily egg production, lo...
Source
#1Michael J. Toscano (University of Bern)H-Index: 20
#2Ian C. Dunn (Edin.: University of Edinburgh)H-Index: 31
Last. Reiner Ulrich (Leipzig University)H-Index: 19
view all 6 authors...
Abstract The current article served to provide the most up to date information regarding the causes of keel bone fracture. While elevated and sustained egg production is likely a major contributing factor towards fractures, new information resulting from the development of novel methodologies suggest complimentary causes which should be investigated. We identified four broad areas (Age to first egg, Late ossification, Underlying disease states, Inactivity leading to reduced bone strength) that c...
Source
#1Anissa Dudde (Bielefeld University)H-Index: 2
#2Steffen WeigendH-Index: 29
Last. Lars SchraderH-Index: 16
view all 6 authors...
Abstract Laying hens have undergone strong selection pressure for traits related to productivity in recent decades. This has led to an impressive increase in egg production but is also assumed to cause undesirable side effects, such as behavioural changes or increased bone damage. Resource trade-offs resulting from egg production might trigger such changes. Our hypothesis was that hens from lines selected for high levels of egg production need to conserve energy to maintain productivity by reduc...
Source
#1Jianping Wang (Sichuan Agricultural University)H-Index: 11
#2Lingyun Qiu (Sichuan Agricultural University)
Last. Shengyu Xu (Sichuan Agricultural University)H-Index: 1
view all 12 authors...
Abstract This study was conducted to determine the effects of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) on performance, egg quality, tibia quality, and serum hormones concentration in laying hens reared under high stocking density. A total of 800 45-week-old Lohmann laying hens were randomly allotted into a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 levels of dietary 25-OH-D3 levels (0 and 69 μg/kg) and 2 rates of stocking densities [506 (low density) and 338 (high density) cm2/hen]. Laying hens were monitored fo...
Source
#1S. E. Purdum (NU: University of Nebraska–Lincoln)H-Index: 5
#2P. Eusebio (NU: University of Nebraska–Lincoln)
Last. Kathy Hanford (NU: University of Nebraska–Lincoln)H-Index: 5
view all 3 authors...
Abstract The objective of this trial was to evaluate spatial distribution, nest and perch usage and preference of Lohmann Brown (BH) and Bovan White (WH) Leghorn hens raised in an aviary system. At 5 wk, 400 floor raised pullets, BH and WH strains, in equal numbers, were placed into 8 modified Big Dutchman Natura aviary units. Each aviary unit had 3 tiers with perches and an indoor litter area. At 25 wk, number of birds were recorded by scan sampling every four hours. Number of birds perching in...
Source
#1Haidong Wei (NEAU: Northeast Agricultural University)H-Index: 2
#2Yanju Bi (NEAU: Northeast Agricultural University)H-Index: 4
Last. Jun Bao (NEAU: Northeast Agricultural University)H-Index: 8
view all 9 authors...
Abstract Keel fracture has adverse effects on welfare, behavior, health, production performance and egg quality of laying hens. To investigate this, 90 healthy Lohmann white laying hens with normal keel bones at 17 weeks of age (WOA) were used in this study and housed individually in furnished cages. All hens were marked with fractured keel (FK) or normal keel (NK) based on the keel bone status through palpation at five time-points (22, 27, 32, 37 and 42 WOA). After the palpation, the behavior w...
Source
#1Ida Thøfner (UCPH: University of Copenhagen)H-Index: 6
#2Hans Petter Hougen (UCPH: University of Copenhagen)H-Index: 23
Last. Jens Peter Christensen (UCPH: University of Copenhagen)H-Index: 30
view all 5 authors...
Keel bone fractures in laying hens have been described with increasing prevalence from several countries over the last twenty years and are considered one of the greatest welfare problems to the layer industry. In Denmark we have observed fracture prevalence in the range of 53% to 100% in flocks from cage-free systems whereas flock prevalences in birds from enriched cages ranged between 50–98%. Previous research have speculated that the underlying reason for the development of keel bone fracture...
1 CitationsSource
Keel bone fractures and deviations belong to the most severe animal welfare problems in laying hens and are influenced by several factors such as husbandry system and genetic background. It is likely that egg production also influences keel bone health due to the high demand of calcium for the eggshell, which is, in part, taken from the skeleton. The high estrogen plasma concentration, which is linked to the high laying performance, may also affect the keel bone as sexual steroids have been show...
Source
#1Elena A. Armstrong (Newcastle University)H-Index: 2
#2Cristina Rufener (UC Davis: University of California, Davis)
Last. Tom V. Smulders (Newcastle University)H-Index: 23
view all 8 authors...
In commercial flocks of laying hens, keel bone fractures (KBFs) are prevalent and associated with behavioural indicators of pain. However, whether their impact is severe enough to induce a depressive-like state of chronic stress is unknown. As chronic stress downregulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in mammals and birds, we employ this measure as a neural biomarker of subjective welfare state. Radiographs obtained longitudinally from Lohmann Brown laying hens housed in a commercial mult...
Source